BUCKLAND, Yewdells Windmill (TQ 221 507)

Felling date ranges:  1926-1941, 1924-1949,  after 1924

Riven weatherboards to cap (6/8) 1925 (25), 1915 (8), 1915, 1923 (14), 19102; Curb (0/1). Site Master 1861-1923 YEWDELLS (t=10.0 OXFORD; 8.6 MAPLEDHM; 7.1 BATH)

Yewdells Windmill is unique in being the only surviving wind-powered sawmill in Britain.  The windmill is small, being 12ft (3.7m) square and 28ft (8.5) to the top of the 2ft (0.6) cap, with 9ft (2.7m) shuttered sails, but is fully operational.  Currently under restoration, dendrochronology was sought to try and date the tower as well as the mill cap.  Unfortunately, the tower had been built entirely of re-used fast-grown oak or softwood.  The oak curb to the cap was sampled but failed to date, but the riven oak weatherboards covering the cap did produce a felling date range suggesting a date sometime around the 1930s.  The windmill and house were purchased in 1924 from the Buckland Court Estate by Francis Sanders, a fourth-generation estate carpenter who ran a steam sawmill from circa 1920 to 1938.  The actual cap mechanism had a cast iron plaque of a millwright, W Cooper, of Henfield, who was active between 1860 to 1876.  Therefore, the dendro date is likely to relate to a restoration or repair of the cap frame by Francis Sanders rather than the date of the cap itself.  Dating commissioned by the owner, Mr Duncan Ferns. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 119)

CHARLWOOD, The Cottage, The Street (TQ 2413 4112)           

a)       East range: cross-wing

Felling dates: Winter 1401/2 and after 1415

Tiebeams 1401 (12C, 19C), 1406. Site Masters 1330-1401 chb1 (t=6.6 CHARLWD1; 6.4 SENG98; 6.1 SUT91); 1288-1406 chb3 (t=9.1 LONDON; 9.0 NEWDIG1; 7.3 SOUTH)

b)      East range: cross-wing inserted joists

Felling dates range: 1516-1544

Joists 1515 (7), 1514 (7), 1493 (1), 1506 (H/S). Site Master 1424-1515 CHARLWD2 (t=9.4 LONDON; 8.9 REF3; 8.2 HANTS97)

c)       West range: hall

Felling dates: Winter 1439/40, Winter 1440/41, Summer 1441

Tiebeams 1440 (16C), 1424 (H/S); First floor girt 1439 (17C); Wall plate (25C); Transverse beam 1440 (14C); Joist 1437 (15). Site Master 1366-1440 CHARLWD1 (t=8.7 NEWDIG1; 8.4 MARKWICK; 7.8 SENG98)

A hall house of two ranges, a 3-bay end-jettied hall range and a 3-bay end-jettied cross-wing with apparently an open but not smoke-blackened rear end bay. Both ranges have crown post roofs. The wall framing to both ranges has large panels with big arch braces whilst the hall range has tapered rootstocks and the cross-wing has angular ones. The dendro results showed unexpectedly that the cross-wing (felling date winter 1401/2 for the two internal tiebeams) predates the hall range (felling date 1441) implying that the former related to an earlier range. Some repairs to the roof over the jetty of the cross-wing seem to be implied by the late date of after 1415 of the front tie beam. Joists to the rear cross-wing bay were inserted in the second quarter of the sixteenth century.  The cross-wing is notable for the unsuitability of the timbers for dendro, with the singular exceptions of the centre tiebeams, whilst the hall range was constructed of timbers which were much more slowly grown. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 119)

CHEAM, Lumley Chapel, St Dunstans Church (TQ 242 639)      

Felling dates: Spring 1374; Summer 1375

Collar 1374(21C), 1356(h/s), 1355(h/s), 1350(h/s); Soulaces 1374(29C), 1373(22C), 1352(h/s); Wall plates 1325, 1316. 

Site Master 1216-1374 LUMLEY (t = 6.9 LONDON; 6.6 HANTS02; 6.5 BERKHM1)

Building recording undertaken for the Churches Conservation Trust included the dendrochronological analysis of nine principal roof timbers. St Dunstans is mainly mid nineteenth century but the adjacent Lumley chapel survives from the medieval church. Most of the primary roof survives, with common rafters resting on an outer wall plate and supported by ashlar posts set on an inner wall plate. The rafters are secured by collars and braces between which a barrel-vaulted plaster ceiling was inserted in the 1580s. A single large tiebeam spans the chapel. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 152)

CHARLWOOD, The Cottage, Norwood Hill Road (TQ 242 417)

Felling dates: Summer 1433, Spring 1434, Summer 1435, Summer 1436

Centre posts 1432 (16C), 1421; Rafters (2/3) 1433 (18C), 1434 (15C); Tiebeam 1422 (1); Stair trimmer 1435 (21C); Joists 1434 (13), 1412 (H/S); Hip rafter (0/1). Site Master 1342-1435 CHARLWD3 (t=7.2 COWFOLD; 6.8 FORTYHLL; 6.6 CRAWLEY1)

A good quality 3-bay hall house with 2-bay open hall. There is some evidence to suggest and end shot beyond the hall. The building has a crown post roof and the walls are large panel framing with tapered rootstocks. The ground floor at the floored end has only 5-0 (1.5m) headroom indicating some importance for the 1st floor room (6-3 1.9m to tiebeam).  This floor frame includes a trimmed stair opening.  Felling dates in mid 1430s.  Dating part-funded by the owners Mr and Mrs Lory. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 119)

CHARLWOOD, Dormers Cottage (TQ 242 416)   

a)       Primary phase

Felling dates: Winter 1411/12

Tiebeam 1411 (20C); Rafters (3/4) 1411 (12C, 29C), 1404 (12); Wall plate 1411 (13C); Principal post (0/1). Site Master 1351-1411 CHARLWD4 (t=7.6 EASTMID; 6.6 EASTBARN; 6.6 MANISTY)

b)      Repairs to roof

Felling date/range: Winter 1431/2, 1433-55

Rafters 1431 (18C), 1432 (18). Site Master 1375-1432 chd89 (t=8.2 WC_KITCH; 8.1 FIELDPB; 7.8 EASTBARN)

Good quality 4-bay hall house with 2 bays open and floored ends. Constructional detail similar to The Cottage above. Both floored ends had limited headroom to the ground floor rooms. Most timbers had a felling date winter 1411/2 except for 2 rafters, near to the much later inserted brick chimney, which gave dates of winter 1431/2 and 1433-55, implying perhaps repairs near to a former louver to the open hall. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 119)

CHARLWOOD, 2 Old Rosemary Cottage, Rosemary Lane (TQ 244 412)

Felling dates: Winter 1641/2

Principal posts 1641 (22C, 28C), 1619; First floor girt (0/1); Corner post (0/1); Tiebeam (0/1); Wall plate (0/1). Site Master 1560-1641 CHARLWD5 (t=5.1 NDS_TWO; 4.8 hcIV1; 4.7 ASHDOWN)

Two bay 2-storey cottage with small end bay which contains evidence of a smoke bay. Small panel framing with straight arch braces and no rootstocks. The felling date (winter 1641/2) is interesting as a late date for smoke bays.  A sample from the lean-to extension wall plate failed to date.  Dating funded by the owner, Mr John Shelley. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 119)

CHOBHAM, Old Pound Cottage (SU 975 621)

Felling dates: Winter 1543/4 and Winter 1547/8

Rafter 1547(17C); Collars (1/3) 1543(26C); Purlins (0/2); Queen strut (0/1); Principal rafter (0/1). Site Master 1446-1543 pcc5 (t=4.9 SENGLAND; 4.8 HLSCROFT; 4.8 HANTS97)

Old Pound Cottage is a three bay hall house, originally with storied ends and a single bay open hall. Only the western bay now retains its original flooring. The whole of the roof is clean except for a short section between the open hall and the easternmost bay where the smoke blackened partition plaster remain in the roof space. This evidence indicates that there was originally a narrow smoke bay/ hood at the end of the open hall and that subsequently a further smoke bay was inserted to serve the end bay (giving back-to-back smoke bays). The insertion of the smoke bay to the end room involved the reflooring of that bay at a slightly higher level. The eventual flooring of the open hall was associated with the insertion of a brick stack in the end-room smoke bay.  The roof is of clasped purlin and wind braced construction, half hipped at the ends. Only two timbers from the original structure and its smoke bay dated, to 1543/4 and 1547/8.  No results were obtained from the inserted collar of the second smoke bay. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

ELMBRIDGE, Wayneflete Tower, Esher (TQ 1308 6510)           

Felling date range (OxCal modelled): 1462-72 (unrefined 1457-89)

Joists (4/5) 1450(1), 1449(H/S), 1446(H/S2); Beam 1448(H/S). Site Master 1392-1450 WAYNEFLT (t = 9.2 WC_KITCH; 7.8 ORIGINAL; 7.7 WTCHRCHL)

The medieval bishops of Winchester owned a series of residences at Bishops Sutton, Farnham Castle and Esher, each a days ride apart on the road to London. Both Farnham and Esher had great late-medieval brick towers, with that at Esher consisting of four-storeys with a decorative diaper brick pattern on its front and rear faces. The side walls are plain and show disturbances which relate to its medieval phase, as well as to eighteenth-century alterations made by William Kent. The tower at Farnham was published by M W Thompson in 1960 (in Surrey Archaeological Collections 57), who discovered, in the bishopric Pipe Rolls, that it had been built between 1470 and 1475 by Bishop William Waynflete (fl. 1447-86). Since Waynflete had built a tower in Lincolnshire in 1484 to be modelled on the tower at Esher, the latter pre-dated 1484, and he suggested a building date Esher of 1478, although no Pipe Roll evidence was found between 1470 and 1484. With the narrowed date range, its building can plausibly be associated with the period between Michaelmas 1464 and Michaelmas 1467 when the bishops cofferer was accounting for building work directly. Historical research and interpretation by Edward Roberts; dating commissioned by Diverse Productions Ltd for a Time-Team programme. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 177)

HAMBLEDON, Maytree Cottage (SU 965 384)

Felling dates: Winter 1558/9 and Winter 1559/60

Rafter 1559(21C); Purlin 1559(20C); Principal rafter 1559(21C); Tiebeams 1559(17C, 19C), 1558(14C). Site Master 1413-1559 MAYTREE (t=10.0 HANTS97; 9.8 CHAWTON3; 9.6 MASTERAL)

This cottage (outside the survey area) is now part of a row of cottages of varying dates on the edge of a common. It originated as a two-unit two-storey timber-framed building apparently of typical end smoke bay form.  The smoke bay is still largely unaltered with extensive areas of smoke blackened plaster remaining: it now contains an inserted brick stack. However close examination revealed that the floor to the hall had been inserted; the building originated as an open hall house with the fire restricted to an end bay 1.1m long. The smoke bay is partitioned off from the hall except for the framed opening for the hearth, which still remains. It appears that the external entrance(s) were into the smoke bay with narrow adjacent doorway(s) to the hall. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

HAMBLEDON (formally Busbridge), Vann (SU 983 375)

a)       Primary phase: hall house

Felling dates: Summer 1541, Summer 1542, and Winter 1542/3

Purlins 1542(19C), 1540(19C); Intermediate collars 1542(26C), 1541(21); Centre strut 1541(22C); Principal rafter 1541(17C).

b)      Inserted smoke hood to hall

Felling dates: Winter 1593/4

Inserted collar 1595(14C). Site Master 1404-1593 VANN (t=11.0 LONDON; 10.8 CHAWTON3; 9.8 HANTS97)

c)       Barn, now converted to Billiard Room

Felling date range: 1547-1553

Principal post (re-set) 1543(16+4-10C NM). Site Master 1477-1543 vann12 (t=6.1 DORE2; 5.1 STE-A; 4.8 HGROVNR9)

Vann is a large rambling house with alterations in the Arts and Crafts style by W D Caroe in 1907/8.  The core of the complex dated to 1542/3 and is a three-bayed hall house; most of the structure below tiebeam level is concealed. However the roof is largely complete and accessible.  It is of clasped purlin form with windbraces: the ends are hipped. The central bay is smoke blackened implying a single bay open hall with floored ends.  The collar of the inserted smoke bay dated to 1593/4 and is probably associated with the flooring of the open hall.  A Wealden barn was converted into a billiard room in 1907/8 and a sample from a reset principal post gave a date range of 1547-1553, suggesting that it was built shortly after the construction of the original hall-house.  Dating commissioned by the late Martin Caroe. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

HASCOMBE, Markwick Farm, Loxhill (SU 995 382)

a)       Primary phase hall house

Felling date: Summer 1407, Winter 1407/8, and Summer 1408

Tiebeam 1407(17C); Arch-brace (0/1); Collars 1407(9C2, 14C, 21C), 1406(12, 13C); Brace to collar purlin (0/1). Site Master 1392-1407 MARKWICK (t=6.0 EASTBARN; 5.8 NWDIG1; 5.7 HANTS97)

b)      Inserted floor to hall

Felling date range: 1581 - 1613

Inserted axial beam 1572(h/s).

c)       Barn

Felling date: Spring 1623

Principal post 1622(12C). Site Master 1486-1622 mrk1011 (t=5.7 MALPAS1; 5.6 LONDON; 5.4 OXON)

Markwick Farm, Loxhill, is a medieval hall house with crown-post roof. It was of four bays originally, although the easternmost bay has been replaced with a cross-wing containing a good seventeenth-century staircase.  The hall is of two unequal bays with an arch-braced tiebeam truss with plain square crownpost over.  The eastern bay has been floored over with an axial beam with 5 x 4 joists with a one inch soffit tenon which is then shouldered on the sides and bottom.  A large timber-framed barn stands to the south-west, retaining much of its original wall-framing.  Dating commissioned by the owner, Mr P J Rampton, in advance of a proposed programme of repair and restoration work to the house. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

MERSTHAM, Quality Street, Home Farm (TQ 289 533), left hand roof

Felling date range: 1580-1597

Principal rafter 1553, 1570(17); Purlins 1559(5+12NM), 1568(10); Wall plates 1569(12), 1570(13+9NM). Site Master 1496-1570 MERSTHAM (t = 10.9 LONDON; 8.8 COBHSQ01; 8.5 SENG98).

The right-hand (north) side of the building has large timber-framed elements supporting a crown-post roof on which the collars are attached to the rafters with lap joints. All the timber in this phase is fast-grown, with insufficient rings for dating. The left-hand half has a clasped-purlin roof with straight, thin elm wind-braces and deep but narrow (plank-like) oak collars. This roof includes some reused smoke-blackened rafters. Dating commissioned by Oxford Archaeology. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

NEWDIGATE, Gaterounds (TQ 198 427)

(a)     Main house

Felling date: Winter 1579/80

Corner posts 1579(18C, 20C); Principal posts (1/3) 1579(19C).  Site Master 1501-1579 GATERNDS (t = 7.8 CHAWTON6; 7.3 LONDON; 6.4 GTBINNAL

(b)     Barn

Felling date range: 1686-7

Weatherboard 1685(27C?). Site Master 1587-1685 grtn11 (t = 5.4 MASTERAL; 5.2 NEWDIG2; 5.1 SARUMBP7)

Gaterounds is a timber-framed house of two builds set at right angles to each other, each comprising two large and one small bay. The earliest section, here dated to 1579/80, is a cross wing to a hall replaced by the later parlour wing. It is of two storeys and had one room on each floor, with the entrance and hearth in the small bay. There is no evidence for a smoke-bay house and the chimney is outside on the north side. The transverse main beam is held by brackets carved in the posts, and the joists are pegged in to hold the beams. Upstairs there are jowl posts except to the small bay (truss D). The roof is of clasped-purlin construction with wind braces. The rafters in the small bay have been cut back for a chimney. Braces in the wall framing are curved, whilst the wind braces are straight. Assembly marks are short and chisel cut. The parlour wing is a 17th-century addition of 2 storeys with a central chimney.  See DBRG report no. 1204. Dating commissioned by Mr and Mrs Maurice Sage.

The barn is a timber-framed structure mainly comprising reused timbers. However, the weatherboards (now replaced) were of oak and a section of one was made available for sampling. This retained almost complete sapwood which had been preserved under the thick layers of tar. As it is thought that no more than one or two rings was missing, a felling date range of 1686-7 is proposed for this timber. It is most probable that this weatherboarding was the original cladding to the barn. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 126)

PIRBRIGHT, Causeway Farmhouse (SU 941 564)

Felling dates: Winter 1556/7, Summer 1557, and Winter 1557/8

Principal posts 1557(20C, 29C), 1556(25C); Wall plate 1557(14C); Stair trimmer 1556(19C); Lower tie 1544(2); First floor girt 1541(h/s); Tiebeam 1556(23C); Joists (2/3) 1557(29C, 32C). Site Master 1403-1557 PRBRIGHT (t=8.4 THEVYNE1; 5.6 OVERTON3; 5.4 PLAISTOW)

This two-unit two-storey central smoke-bay house has numerous extensions, which made the extent of the original building uncertain until the results of the dendrochronology were complete. The building has a clasped purlin and wind-braced roof.  The building is notable for the difference in the quality of the joists in the two bays: those in the service bay are relatively rough and medieval in character whilst those in the other bay are finely cut, chamfered and stopped and with characteristics normally associated with a date about 1600. However both sets of joists gave identical dendro dates of winter 1557/8. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

PIRBRIGHT, Vynes Cottage (SU 946 559)

Felling dates: Spring 1502 and Winter 1511/12

Re-set studs 1511(33C), 1501(33C); Principal post (0/1); Joists 1507(23+3-10C), 1484(h/s), 1483(h/s). Site Master 1333-1501 VYNECOTT (t=5.7 LONDON; 5.6 BDLEIAN2; 5.6 HARMOTS3)

This three-bay house has a two-bay open hall and one floored bay with an undershot cross-passage.  The floored bay was originally divided into two (presumed) service rooms.  No evidence suggests an endshot at the other end of the hall.  The hipped roof has clasped purlins and wind braces. A smoke bay backing onto the cross-passage was inserted into the hall when it was floored.  Unfortunately the inserted floor and smoke bay timbers are of elm, unsuitable for dating.  The original oak timbers gave a latest felling date of winter 1511/12.  Dating supported by the owners, Dr and Mrs Wren. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

SALFORDS AND SIDLOW, Axes Lane, Oakdene (TQ 293 465)

Felling date: Spring 1430

All timbers (4/6). Stud 1403(h/s); Posts 1426(9), 1428(11); Brace 1429(19C). Site Masters 1338-1428 OAKDENE (t = 7.5 EASTBARN; 7.5 LONDON; 7.0 FORD); 1341-1429 OKD02 (t = 5.2 FIELDPB; 5.0 EASTBARN; 4.9 WINIFRED)

The main body of the building consists of four bays lying east-west with the original opposed doorways in the second bay from the east end. A braced crown-post supports a collar-purlin. The most unusual features of the building are the long braces from low down on the corner posts to the wallplates ; these pass behind the mid-rails. Dating commissioned by the owners. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 189)

SALFORDS AND SIDLOW, Picketts Farm, Picketts Lane (TQ 292 459)

Felling date:  Spring 1452

All timbers (6/9):  Posts 1426(H/S), 1432(H/S), 1435(H/S), 1443(H/S), 1450(12), 1451(10C). Site Master 1347-1451 PICKETTS (t = 8.0 FULHAM1; 7.6 EGRNSTD6; 7.5 SENG98)

Now a four-bay structure, the original barn was a three-bay structure with crown-post roof, half-hipped at both ends. The present roof was constructed in the 20th century using softwood, but the rest of the original timber structure remains largely intact. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 177)

WEST END, Fellow Green House (SU 950 606): Inserted floor to hall

Felling dates: Winter 1555/6

Joists 1555(15C, 22C), 1536(h/s), 1524(h/s), 1479; Transverse beam (0/1). Site Master 1419-1555 FLWSGRN1 (t=5.9 KILBEES1; 5.8 BCT1; 5.3 WC_KITCH)

Fellow Green House, (not another building of the same name in Guildford Road close by), is a large four bay hall house with two-bay open hall, internal jetty, crown post roof and various features (square scantling braces, low ground floor ceilings in the floored bays so-called undercrofts) suggesting an early date. Four samples from the primary phase failed to date due to the timber being too fast-grown. A framed smoke bay (and associated flooring of the open hall) was inserted at the upper end; the smoke bay backed onto a new cross passage which involved removing the internal jetty. This work was constructed out of timber felled in 1555/6. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)

WITLEY, The Donkey Door, Petworth Road (SU 947 398)

Felling date: Spring 1519

All timbers (5/9);  Door jamb 1487(H/S);  Post 1496(H/S); Stud 1517(17); Principal rafter 1505(H/S+12NM); 1518(19C). Site Master 1404-1518 DONKEY (t = 7.4 TREES2; 6.4 STRETEFM; 6.0 HANTS02).

Two bays, parallel to the road. Some timbers in the clasped-purlin roof are smoke-blackened, although the house has clearly been re-roofed at some stage. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles and Worthington 2005, VA 36, list 166)

WOKING, Langmans (SU 987 582)

Felling dates: Winter 1522/3, Summer 1536, Winter 1536/7, and Winter 1537/8

Windbrace (1/2) 1536(26C); Principal rafters (1/2) 1522(26C); Stave 1529(27); Collars (1/2) 1537(20C); Rafter 1535(28C). Site Master 1437-1536 LANGMANS (t=6.3 ALTON; 5.3 VINECOTT; 5.3 WC_KITCH)

Langmans is a hall house, now of four bays but with clear evidence of the former existence to the north of a further bay.  It is unusual in the area, as other large houses of similar date are usually of four bays only.  Originally it had a floored bay at the south end, with the partition to the next bay set back to form an undershot dais (internal jetty) to the open hall.  The next two bays formed the open hall, the first bay open with a completely clean roof, the next partitioned off above ground floor level to form a smoke bay.  The adjacent (fourth) bay has a smoke blackened roof and presumably was a kitchen with open hearth.  The missing bay beyond was apparently of full height rather than an endshot and is therefore presumed to be floored.  The original arrangement at ground floor level between the open hall and the open kitchen is unclear because the insertion of a masonry flue, providing hearths to both bays, has obscured or destroyed the details whilst reducing the size of the smoke bay. It appears that the upper part of the smoke bay (within the roof space), whilst being reduced in lateral length on the kitchen side, continued to be used as a framed flue associated with masonry at lower levels, because an inserted smoke blackened partition remains in the roof matching the masonry chimney.  The roof is of clasped purlin and wind-braced construction, which is typical for late hall houses in west Surrey. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 111)