MARYLAND



Summer House, Montpelier

Summer House, Montpelier Mansion, Laurel, Maryland (
39.064719, -76.844118)

Summer House             Felling dates: Winter 1792/3, Spring 1793

Bottom plate (1/1) 1792 (C); Rafter (0/1); Cupola rafter (0/3); Floor joists (2/3) 1792 (¼C), 1758.
Site Master 1698--1792 MSHMx1 (t =6.84 MDZ8; 6.79 belt; 6.22 RCBC3).

The summer house is a rare extant hexagonal structure with a shingle roof, shiplap siding, and a cupola.
Dendrochronological analysis has shown that the original structure was built in the spring of 1793 or shortly thereafter.

Worthington, M J, and Seiter, I 2013 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of the Summer House,
Montpelier Mansion, Laurel, Maryland’, Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2013/23

Link to The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission site for this site here



William Still Cabin

William Still Cabin, Caroline County, Maryland (38.83316, -75.83554
)

Primary Cabin             Felling dates: Spring 1828, Winter 1829/30

Ceiling joists (1/3) 1827 (¼C); Studs (1/2) 1827 (¼C); Post (1/1) 1822 (¼C); Corner post (0/1); Door post (0/1); Floor joist (1/1) 1829 (C). Site Master 1729-1829 WSMDx2 (t =5.94PBMx1; 5.91 ARC; 5.84 DC-AREA). Individual Timber 1754-1822 wsmd3 (t = 5.35 MDOAK; 5.17 MAG30; 4.73 DC-AREA2).Individual Timber 1761-1827 wsmd6 (t = 6.05 RCBC3; 5.74 MDOAK; 5.71 POPMASTER).

The William Still Cabin is a single-story framed house, with a later addition at one end. The building is in the process of being restored and moved to the Caroline County 4-H Park, where it will become part of the William Still Family Interpretive Center.

Dendrochronological analysis has shown that the original structure was built from trees felled in the spring of 1828 through to the winter of 1829/30. The addition was not sampled as part of this study.

Link to story in the The Star Democrat, Easton MD here.




Linchester Mill, Preston, Caroline Co, Maryland (Lat 38.70085; Long
-75.89740)

Primary Construction Phase Felling dates: Winter 1823/4, Spring 1824

Post 1823(24C); Girts 1823(16¼C, 22¼C); Brace 1799. Site Master 1592-1823 LMP (t = 6.5 UTCx1; 6.38 RED; 6.25 MTVx2).

Linchester Mill is a two and a half story frame structure, four bays long and two bays deep, with a two story lean-to addition on the east side and a one story lean-to addition on the west side. The original 1824 building was 3 bays wide, with the additional bay being added on the west side around 1880. The western lean-to addition was constructed prior to 1900 and the east one was built by 1918 based on datable photographic evidence. The roof is steeply pitched, covered with raised seam tin and has recently been replaced based on historical photographs. The front (north) façade, which faces the road, has a large gull wing awning also covered in raised seam tin. The primary entry is on the west side of the north façade. The building is faced in 20th century weatherboard that has been painted red and is erratically fenestrated on the first floor.

Worthington, M J, and Miles, D W H 2009 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of Linchester Mill, Preston, Caroline County, Maryland’, unpubl ODL archive report 2009/14

Link to The Maryland Historical Trust site for this building here.
 

Ken Lund

(Photo courtesy of Ken Lund.)

CORN CRIB, Best Farm, Frederick County, Maryland (39.370278N; -77.39896W)

Felling date: After 1849, after 1851, after 1880, and after 1892

Offcuts (5\5) 1849(H/W only), 1851(H/W only), 1880(H/W only), 1892(H/W only). Site Master 1726-1892 MCYx5 (t = 7.24 MCYx3; 5.79 MCYx1; 5.71 ALLENS; 5.34 MD2009).

The Corn Crib at Best Farm is located to the northwest of the Main House. It is a timber-framed structure with vertical wooden sidings and a tin roof, all supported on stone piers, and a large opening in each gable. This building served dual functions: the central drive-through was used as a wagon shed to shelter farm equipment while the cribs on either side were used to store and dry corn. The Corn Crib was stabilized in 2010.

Worthington and Seiter 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Detached Log Kitchen, Main House Cellar, Secondary House, and Corn Crib at Best Farm and of the Thomas Farm House, all at Monocacy National Battlefield, Frederick County, Maryland. Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2011/04.

Link to the National Park Service page for Best Farm here.



Detached Log Kitchen, Best Farm

DETACHED LOG KITCHEN, Best Farm, Frederick County, Maryland (39.37022N; -77.39859W)

Felling date: Spring 1817, Winter 1817/8

Logs (6/8) 1816(¼C), 1817 (C), 1804 (+11). Site Master 1739-1817 MCYx1 (t = 8.62 DC-AREA; 8.54 MD2009; 7.32 KEEDSITE; 7.15 DRN)

The Detached Log Kitchen at Best Farm was originally a small one-story notched log addition located to the rear (west) of the Main House. This building is believed to have served originally as a detached log kitchen, and is thought to have been incorporated into the main house through a frame infill addition added ca. 1870. A frame second story was added to the building at the same time. The log kitchen has been severely impacted by termite infestation, and most of the log members were removed in 2007 and replaced with dimensional framing. A small section of the log crib was retained as an "artifact" of the original log building during stabilization in 2007.

Worthington and Seiter 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Detached Log Kitchen, Main House Cellar, Secondary House, and Corn Crib at Best Farm and of the Thomas Farm House, all at Monocacy National Battlefield, Frederick County, Maryland. Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2011/04.

Link to the National Park Service page for Best Farm here.



Best Farm Main House Celler

MAIN HOUSE CELLAR, Best Farm, Frederick County, Maryland (39.37022N; -77.39859W)

Felling date: Winter 1794/5, Spring 1795

Site Master 1728-1794 MCYx2 (4.82 MCYx1; 4.77 MCYx5; 4.61 MCYx3: 4.49 LBENNETT).

The Main House at Best Farm is a two-story, multi-part dwelling house constructed primarily of stuccoed stone with a log and frame addition. The building faces generally northeast (towards the original alignment of the historic ca. 1748 Georgetown Road) and is situated on top of a knoll on the west bank of the Monocacy River. It is attributed to the Vincendière family, who acquired the land that it is situated on in 1798, although they may have been occupying it as early as 1794.

The Main House was constructed in several phases. The earliest portion consists of the south wing of the house, which is made up of a stair passage, cellar, and two south rooms; this portion of the house originally had a hipped roof. A two-story, four-room north addition was constructed relatively soon after the original south wing, and initially had a shed roof.

The above picture shows the Main House in the foreground with the Detached Log Kitchen at the rear.

Worthington and Seiter 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Detached Log Kitchen, Main House Cellar, Secondary House, and Corn Crib at Best Farm and of the Thomas Farm House, all at Monocacy National Battlefield, Frederick County, Maryland. Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2011/04.

Link to the National Park Service page for Best Farm here.



Best Farm Secondary House

SECONDARY HOUSE, Best Farm, Frederick County, Maryland (39.37022N; -77.39859W)

Felling date: Winter 1817/8

Logs (3/6) 1817(C), 1815. Site Master 1741-1817 MCYx3 (t = 6.92 DRNx4; 6.73 ANTIETAM; 6.47 DC-AREA).

The Secondary House at Best Farm is a two-story stone and log dwelling house located northeast of the Main House. The first story is constructed of stone and the second story is constructed of log and is believed to have been a later addition. Two doors on the ground level face east toward the Georgetown Pike (present-day MD Route 355). The structure probably had an elevated gallery or porch on its west elevation to access the second-story doors that face the main house. Interior refinements, including plaster walls and ovalo-architrave moldings, are similar to those in the main house, suggesting that the secondary dwelling may have been used to accommodate the large Vincendière household, including other French refugees. The Secondary House was stabilized in 2005.

Worthington and Seiter 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Detached Log Kitchen, Main House Cellar, Secondary House, and Corn Crib at Best Farm and of the Thomas Farm House, all at Monocacy National Battlefield, Frederick County, Maryland. Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2011/04.

Link to the National Park Service page for Best Farm here.



Thomas Farm Monocacy MD

THOMAS FARM HOUSE, Frederick County, Maryland (39.35879N; -77.39174W)

Felling date: Winter 1804/5, Spring 1805, Summer 1805, Winter 1805/6 and Summer 1806

Joists (7/10) 1804(¼C, ½C, C), 1805(½C, C). Site Master 1673-1805 MCYx4 (t = 9.39 MD2009; 8.91 HQFx2; 8.51 DC-AREA; 8.01 VA2009).

The Thomas Farm House is a large, multi-part manor house constructed of brick. The building is situated on the east side of the Monocacy River at the end of a long tree-lined drive and faces northeast, toward the original alignment of the historic ca. 1748 Georgetown Road. The building is currently being rehabilitated for use as the park's administrative headquarters.

Worthington and Seiter 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Detached Log Kitchen, Main House Cellar, Secondary House, and Corn Crib at Best Farm and of the Thomas Farm House, all at Monocacy National Battlefield, Frederick County, Maryland. Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory 2011/04.

Link to the National Park Service page for Thomas Farm here.




Handsell, Dorchester County, Maryland (38.508835N; -76.81209W)

Felling date: Winter 1836/7, Summer 1837

Floor joist (9/10) 1836 (½ C, C). Site Master 1749-1836 HAND (t = 8.38 DC AREA; 7.66 POPMAST; 7.60 ESHORE; 7.31 MD2009).

Handsell is an historic brick plantation house located two miles north of the town of Vienna, Maryland.
The 1 ½-story building sits on top of a tall above-ground basement. Its principal elevation, laid in Flemish bond, is five bays long. The plan of the first and second floors consists of a central stair passage with two flanking rooms. The ground floor or basement kitchen contains neither central passage nor stair, with access to the upper stories apparently occurring by way of an exterior stair that no longer exists.

It is thought that the original 18th-century plantation house was severely damaged in a fire of c. 1806/7, which destroyed all of the timberwork within the building and left only sections of the exterior brickwork surviving. This dendrochronological study has shown that the house was rebuilt in the summer of 1837 or very shortly thereafter.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I 2011 The Tree-Ring Dating of Handsell, Dorchester County, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2011/02.

Link to Restore Hensell's webpage here.



josiah

JOSIAH HENSON SITE, Montgomery County, Maryland (39.044028N; -77.121615W)

Felling date: Log Kitchen: Spring 1849, Winter 1849/50, Spring 1850, and Winter 1850/51

Log beam (8/14) 1848(¼C), 1849(C), 1849¼(C), 1850(C). Site Master 1742-1849 UTCx1 (t = 11.65 DC AREA; 8.99 LBENNETT; 8.99 PBMx1).

Located on the Old Georgetown Road in North Bethesda, Maryland, the Josiah Henson Historic Site is comprised of a frame dwelling with three additions. The now Colonial Revival frame house is 18’ x 19’, one-and-one-half stories tall and four bays wide, with a side-gabled roof. On the rear, west façade is a 14.5’ x 17.5’, two-story kitchen and bedroom wing and to the south is an added screened porch. On its north façade is a 16.5’ x 12.5’, one-story, log addition for which the site is known (figure 1); this addition is the subject of the following dendrochronological study.

The hand-hewn logs of the log addition extend approximately eight courses high and are joined at the corners by V notches. The chimney is corbelled to match the two chimneys in the frame section. Above the logs of the north elevation wall, the gable is sheathed in weatherboards that match those of the frame house. Inside, a brick hearth and fireplace opening is centered in the north wall.

The frame section of the house dates to 1800-1815, while the dendrochronology has shown that the log wing dates to the winter of 1850/51 or very shortly thereafter. The structure’s construction and framing, therefore, date to the 19th century. The house was likely built by George or Isaac Riley, while the log wing may have been built by Isaac’s widow, Matilda Riley. The house and log wing were renovated between 1936 and 1939, according to drawings by architect Lorenzo Winslow. The effort included the construction of the two-story rear addition and side, screened porch. The appearance of the house has not changed significantly since that work was completed.

Worthington M, J, and Miles D. H. W. 2010 The Tree-Ring Dating of the Log Kitchen Block at the Josiah Henson Site, Montgomery County,Maryland ODL report

Link to Montgomery Parks site for this building here.
 



Melwood Park, Prince George's County, Maryland (38.813117° -76.816733°)

(a) Primary phase Felling dates: Spring 1711, Winter 1712/13, Winter 1713/14, and Summer 1714

(b) Gable end extensions and raising of front roof slope Felling dates: Winter 1765/6, Summer 1766, and Winter 1766/7

(a) Principal rafters(1/2) 1712(C); Common rafters (10/17) 1713(22C, 20C, ½C2, C3), 1712(C), 1710(17), 1708; Ex situ clapboards 1710(16¼C, 9¼C, 5¼C, 1696(1710) (¼C); Sill beam (0/1); Floor joists (1/3) 1694(1). (b) Principal rafters (2/4) 1766(C), 1765(C); Collars 1766(C), 1765(1766) (C), 1765(½C4), 1761, 1751, 1750; Ex situ clapboard 1748(14); Floor joists 1752(16), 1742, 1741; Common rafter (0/1); Sill beam (0/1); Inserted posts (0/2). Site Masters 1620-1752 MELx1 (oak) (t = 5.8 MONTP; 5.5 PIEDMONT; 4.7 BPR; 4.6 HQF); 1574-1766 MELx2 (tulip poplar) (t = 8.4 SOTx45; 5.0 WRE; 4.9 HSC; 3.8 GLOx1); 1597-1748 MELx3 (oak clapboards) (t = 6.0 PIEDMONT; 5.8 MONTP; 5.1 EYREHALL; 5.0 SOTx12).

Melwood Park, Prince George’s County, Maryland, is a multi-phased building, the earliest of which was thought to have been constructed in the late 1720s. The dendrochronological analysis has moved this back by over a decade to a likely construction date of 1714. The roof is remarkable on account of its principal rafter construction with light-weight riven common rafters with some of the original red oak clapboards. Ex situ slices of four of these were found to have been felled in the spring of 1711, demonstrating that these had been seasoned for several years before being used. In 1767 the house was extended at both ends and the roof raised at the front. A large number of rafters and collars relating to this work produced precise felling dates of winter 1765/6 to winter 1766/7. The majority of the timbers used on this later phase of work was of tulip poplar, compared with the equal mixture of oak and poplar used in the Period I structure. 1750 to c1800. Miles, D H, and Worthington, M J, 2008 “The Tree-Ring Dating of Melwood Park, Prince George’s County, Maryland”, ODL unpubl rep 2008/16.

Link to Wikipedia page for this building here.
 


Norwood


NORWOOD LOG TOBACCO HOUSE, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland (39.27952N; -77.28866W)

Felling date: Spring 1884

Logs (6/7) 1883(8¼C), 1878, 1876(1+7 NM), 1874(+8¼C NM), 1873(+7C NM), 1873. Site Master 1785-1878 TBM (t = 6.82 WCM; 5.38 PA009; 5.36 ZLH; 4.4 FORES).

The log tobacco house is the only remaining building standing from the Jeremiah Norwood farm, and has dated to 1884. The tobacco house is a rare example of a type of structure used for “fire curing” tobacco, a process unique to this part of northern Montgomery County. The tobacco was stored in the tightly-chinked log barn with a metal roof, and a fire was built in the floor of the structure to provide smoke to dry and cure the tobacco leaves. Jeremiah Norwood lived on the site in the early and mid-19th century; he was a carpenter, millwright, and Confederate Army veteran. The Browning family owned the farm from 1890-1945, and farmed tobacco there well into the 20th century.

Worthington, M J, and Miles, D W H 2009 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of the Perry Browning House, Zeigler Log House, Prescott Road Log Cabin, and Norwood Log Tobacco House, all in Little Bennett Regional Park, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland’ , unpubl ODL archive report 2009/15.

Link to Montgomery Parks site for Little Bennett Regional Park here.  



Perry

PERRY BROWNING HOUSE, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland (39.27856N; -77.29788W)

Felling date: Spring 1815, Spring 1816, and Summer 1816

Logs (7/10) 1815(½C), 1814 (¼C4), 1813(2), 1809; Joists (44/) 1815(¼C), 1809(+8NM), 1809, 1772.
Site Masters 1746-1815 PBMx1 (t = 8.48 ZLH; 5.97 DRNx; 5.61 MD2008; 5.5 ARC); 1722-1815 PBMx2 (t = 5.08 DRNx9; 5.02 DRNx; 4.81 FPCPA; 4.71 BPR); 1750-1809 pbm12a1 (t = 8.53 PA009; 6.7 DRNx; 6.74 HQFx2).

The Perry Browning House consists of four bays and is two-and-a-half stories high with a front porch. It is set back from the road and faces northwest, with the southwestern half of the house being the period one log house, tree-ring dated to 1816, and the northeastern half the period two frame addition dating to the mid-20th century. The site had a number of owners in the 18th and early 19th centuries until Perry Browning purchased it in 1830. Browning added on to the original log structure and the farm remained in his family until 1897, when it was sold by his son Charles Browning. In the 20th century, the structure suffered from numerous additions and remodeling, including asbestos siding that now disguises its log-cabin origins.

Worthington, M J, and Miles, D W H 2009 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of the Perry Browning House, Zeigler Log House, Prescott Road Log Cabin, and Norwood Log Tobacco House, all in Little Bennett Regional Park, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland’ , unpubl ODL archive report 2009/15.

Link to The Maryland Historical Trust site for this building here.



Prescott


PRESCOTT ROAD LOG CABIN, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland (39.27952N; -77.28866W)

Felling date: Summer 1825, Winter 1825/6?

Felling date: Summer 1844, Winter 1844/5

Joists (3/4) 1824(11½C), 1843(16½C), 1844(17C); Logs (1/3) 1825(C?). Site Master 1731-1844 WCM (t = 6.95 ZLH; 6.74 PA009; 6.62 DRNx).

The Prescott Road Log Cabin (colloquially known as “Whitey’s Cabin” after Whitey Saunders, Park Maintenance staff), tucked back in the woods behind Prescott Road, is something of a mystery. The structure was originally two cabins, probably built at different times, joined together by a central passage hall. According to oral tradition, the land in the vicinity of the cabin had been owned by African-American families since the 19th century, suggesting that this structure might have been built or occupied by freed slaves.

Samples were taken from the east-end cabin only, as all of the timbers from the west-end cabin have disintegrated. The dating of the samples has shown two distinct phases for the east-end cabin: an initial construction phase of 1825/6 and a later repair phase from 1844/5. During the later phase a number of large ground joists were replaced, possibly suggesting that the cabin was moved to its present location at this time.

Worthington, M J, and Miles, D W H 2009 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of the Perry Browning House, Zeigler Log House, Prescott Road Log Cabin, and Norwood Log Tobacco House, all in Little Bennett Regional Park, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland’ , unpubl ODL archive report 2009/15.

Link to Montgomery Parks site for Little Bennett Regional Park here.



William's Conquest


Williams' Conquest, Kingston; Somerset County (38.071900; 75.761151)

Primary Phase  Felling date: After 1731?


Cellar ceiling joists (1/2) 1692 H/W only; Wallplate (1/1) after 1674; Tilted plate (1/1) after 1731; Common rafters (0/11); Fireplace lintels (0/2). Site Master 1575-1731 WCQ (t = 6.19 VA2009; 5.65 WVVAP; 5.67 SJC; 5.39 MONTP).

Williams' Conquest is a 1 1/2-story Flemish bond brick house located on Gales Creek in Somerset County, Maryland. The house rests on a partially excavated basement and has a steeply pitched gable roof covered in wood shingles and a flush chimney on each gable end. The northwest façade faces the creek and features a three-bay elevation with a centrally located door, while the southeast façade is composed of five bays. A c. 1825-1850 frame kitchen and a 1960s utility wing were added onto the southwest gable end of the original structure.

Worthington, M J, and Seiter, J I 2011 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of Williams' Conquest, Kingston, Somerset County, Maryland ’ , unpublised ODL archive report 2011/5.




zeigler


ZEIGLER LOG HOUSE, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland (39.271846N; -77.307500W)

Felling date: Winter 1822/3, Spring 1823

Logs (10/13) 1822(C, ¼C8), 1820. Site Master 1752-1822 ZLH (t = 8.48 PBMx1; 6.95 WCM; 6.02 HMHx2; 5.92 HOS).

The oldest part of the Zeigler Log House, consisting of two equally-sized log rooms with attic spaces, has been dated to 1823. It appears that the log house was built by Elisha Hyatt, who owned the property during that time. The property was purchased by Eleanor Zeigler in 1854; her husband, David Zeigler, farmed and ran mills on their property through the 1870s.

The north room of the structure contains the opening for the original hearth, and a boxed winder staircase in the northeast corner leading up to the attic. The southern room displays the ghost of a winder stair. A two-story, single pile, center passage house was added to the front (west) of the log structure about the mid 19th century and its interior and exterior décor show Greek Revival and Italianate influences.

Worthington, M J, and Miles, D W H 2009 ‘The Tree-Ring Dating of the Perry Browning House, Zeigler Log House, Prescott Road Log Cabin, and Norwood Log Tobacco House, all in Little Bennett Regional Park, Clarksburg, Montgomery County, Maryland’ , unpubl ODL archive report 2009/15.

Link to Montgomery Parks site for Little Bennett Regional Park here.




Sotterley Mansion, Hollywood, St Mary’s County, Maryland (Latitude: 38.375725 / Longitude: -76.545625)

(a) Primary phase Felling dates: Summer 1701 and Winter 1703/4

(b) West Wing Felling dates: Spring and Summer 1715

(c) Knee walls in West Wing Felling date: Winter 1723/4

(d) First Southern Extension Felling dates: Winter 1731/2 and Summer 1732

(e) Raising of East Roof Slope over 1st Phase Felling dates: Summer 1761 to Winter 1762/3

(f) Northern Extension Felling dates: Summer 1768 to Winter 1769/70

(a) Rafters (11/13) 1703(7C, 10C, 11C2, 12C), 1701(10), 1700(8½C, 11½C), 1699(7), 1696(3), 1691; Joists (1/2) 1690; Clapboard 1696(2). (b) Rafters 1714(8½C, 9¼C, 10¼C, 11½C, 12¼C, 12½C), 1713(7). (c) Knee-wall stud 1723(22C). (d) Studs 1731(C2), 1703; Rafters (3/5) 1731(C, ½C), 1682; Ceiling joists (2/3) 1678, 1664; (e) Rafters 1762(C), 1761(½C); Collars 1760(½C); Collars 1760(½C), 1756; Strut 1759; (f) Stud 1769(C); Joists (1/5) 1768(½C); Rafters 1767(½C), 1757, 1653; Beam 1759; String 1768 (½C); Binder (0/1). Site Masters (a) 1601-1703 SOTx1 (oak) (t = 5.1 OMBx1; 4.6 PIEDMONT; 4.6 MONTP); (b+c) 1650-1723 SOTx2 (oak) (t = 5.1 PIEDMONT; 4.9 MONTP; 4.7 OMBx1); (d) 1573-1731 SOTx3 (poplar) (t = 8.0 SOTx45; 4.1 SOTx12); (e+f) 1583-1769 SOTx45 (poplar) (t = 6.2 VA023; 4.5 OMBx1; 4.4 PIEDMONT)

Link to Sotterley Plantation webpage  here

Miles, D H, and Worthington, M J, 2006 “The Tree-Ring Dating of Sotterley Mansion, Hollywood, Maryland”, ODL unpubl rep 2006/6




Red House, Wye Plantation, Easton, Maryland  (38.85265, 76.16605)

Felling dates: Spring 1813, Spring 1815, and Summer 1815

Brace 1813 (¼C) 1815(22½C); Stud 1815(¼C). Site Master 1602-1814 RED (t = 7.12 PNM; 6.38 LMP; 6.01 PIEDMONT; 5.87 WATCH).

The overseer’s House at Wye House is a frame building of 1½ stories on a brick foundation with chimneys centered at either end of the pitched gable roof. The house incorporates a hall-parlor plan on the first story and two unheated rooms in the garret. The house is often attributed to the 18th century, but only a few hand-wrought nails are evident, in deference to double-struck machine-made nails of a type found from the 1790s to the 1830s, but most often in the first and second decades of the 19th century. Architrave trim from the same period survives on one window on the west elevation, and remnants of three board partitions observed behind the garret kneewalls indicate the original chamber configuration may have been more complicated than the present arrangement.

The overseer’s house has been renovated at least twice, first in the mid-19th century, and again in the late 1950s. The first renovation appears to have stripped the house down to its frame. The chimneys were rebuilt, the siding was replaced, and the extant plaster and lathing dates to this period. The extent of these changes combined with the casual quality of the early foundation and the relatively crude nature of the original second-story partitions suggests this renovation may have been driven by a desire to upgrade rather than simply repair the structure. Wholesale replacement of siding and chimneys for a building that was probably less than 50 years old may indicate that the original dwelling had riven clapboard siding and lightly built chimneys; the interior may have been whitewashed rather than plastered. The new work was fairly refined in quality—the weatherboard siding has beaded edges and a delicate reveal detail, the chimneys are carefully executed with corbelled shoulders and tiled weatherings, and the interior is neatly trimmed and plastered.

Renovations in the late 1950s included construction of a small frame addition to accommodate a bathroom, and installation of a modern kitchen. Flooring was replaced on both stories, the fireplaces were blocked, and some of the exterior siding was replaced.

The date of 1815 derived by dendrochronological sampling of the period I house frame is consistent with the architectural evidence, particularly the dominant use of double-struck machine nails typically found in the early years of the 19th century. The precise date for the mid-19th century renovation remains uncertain, but architectural evidence is consistent with the 1840s and 1850s. The mid-20th century renovation incorporated bathroom fixtures dating to July and December 1956, suggesting the renovation occurred in 1956-57. Miles, D H, and Worthington, M J, 2007 “ The Tree-Ring Dating of the Red House, Wye Plantation, Easton, Talbot County, Maryland”, ODL unpubl rep 2007/1



Joseph Poffenberger Barn

JOSEPH POFFENBERGER BARN, Sharpsburg, Washington County, Maryland (39.49013N; -77.74764W)

a) West Section Felling dates: Spring 1880, Winter 1880/1
b) East Section Felling dates: Winter 1889/90, Spring 1890


a) Posts (4/4) 1879 (½C), 1880 (C3). Floor joists (2/3) 1880 (C), 1872. Summer bean (1/1) 1859. b) Joist (0/2) Door jamb (0/2) Wallplate (1/1) 1889 (¼C). Posts (4/5) 1889 (¼C2, C2 ). Site Master 1636-1889 ANTIETAM (t = 9.85 MKF; 8.90 MD2009; 8.88 ALLENS).

The Joseph Poffenberger Barn is a large "standard-type" bank barn built in two construction phases, the western one being larger and earlier than the eastern one. The foundation and lower-level exterior walls are constructed of limestone masonry. The lower level has been separated into six bays to support the feeding and milking of livestock and features a half-open forebay on the south elevation. An earthen ramp leads to the upper level of the barn on the north elevation. The upper level is built of heavy mortise-and-tenon construction, with cranked queen post struts, and was sheathed in yellow pine boards of random width, which have subsequently been replaced with new boarding. The upper level of the barn is divided by five bents into four main sections. The two center bays were used as the threshing floor, the western bay was used for hay/straw mow, and the eastern bay was used for hay/straw mow with the southern section reserved for use as a granary.

Worthington, M J, and Seiter, J I, 2011 ' The Tree-Ring Dating of the Mary Locher Cabin, Joseph Poffenberger Barn, Wash House, Wagon Shed, and Roulette House, all in Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, Maryland', unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2011/03.

Link to the Historic American Buildings Survey for this building here.




KEEDY HOUSE AND COTTAGE, Boonsboro; Washington County, Maryland

 
(a) Keedy House (39.53959, -77.698585) Felling dates: Winter 1775/6, Spring 1777

(b) Keedy Cottage (39.539694, -77.698923) Felling dates: Spring 1809

(a) Joists 1775 (28C, 23C), 1771(15), 1763, 1759; Rafters 1776(¼C3); Tiebeams (0/2). (b) Fireplace lintel 1808(15¼C); Joists 1808(19¼C), 1805(13), 1803(10), 1791(H/S). Site Master 1643-1808 KEEDSITE (t = 8.5 ALLENS; 6.9 MKF; 6.4 WATCH; 6.2 FORES).

Description: The 2 1/2-story Keedy House faces south, built of coursed gray stone. The house is three bays wide and two deep. The entrance is in the east bay with a single 9/9 light window with heavy muntins in each of the other bays. The easternmost window in the second floor has 6/6 lights while the other two are modern 1/1 sash. The frames of the windows and door are very plain and held together with wood pins. Surmounting each window is a stone segmental arch. Flanking the center window in the second floor are small, arched recesses, perhaps intended to contain date markers. A brick chimney pierces the gable roof between the center and east bays. Over the doorway is a small one-story porch with square posts and railings. The west end has two windows on each floor, variously 6/6, 12/8, and 1/1, with a central 6-light casement in the gable. The first story on the north side is built partially into the hillside. There is a door in the west bay and a 6/6 window in the center, with another 6/6 window over these. A shed-roofed screened porch covers the first story. Projecting from the east bay is a one-room addition with a 6/6 light window on the west side. The north end of the addition has an inside end chimney, brick above the roofline. The east side of the addition has a door and 6/6 window. The east end of the main house has two 9/6 windows on the first floor and 6/6 windows above, with a 6-light casement in the gable. West of the house is a small stone bank house, two bays by two bays, with a two-story porch, known as the Keedy Cottage. Significance: Probably built soon after 1791, the house is an extant example of the type of farmhouse built in Washington County during the 18th and early 19th centuries. It is a two story house with small rooms, built of the gray stone found in the county. This brief description could be that of any number of farmers' homes that once dotted the countryside and it stands as a visible reminder of the families who lived and farmed in this area. As such, the Keedy House is significant as an example of the vernacular architecture of the late 18th century. (National Register: 74000972 (7/25/1974) Miles, D H, and Worthington, M J, 2007 “The Tree-Ring Dating of Keedy House and Cottage, Boonsboro, Washington County, Maryland ”, ODL unpubl rep 2007/7.


Link to The Maryland Historical Trust site for this building
here.
 


 
Mary Locher Cabin, Sharpsburg, Washington County (39.47814N; -77.75243W)

a) Log Section Felling dates: Summer 1807, Winter 1809/10
b) Framed Section Felling dates: Winter 1865/6

a) Logs (3/9) 1809 (C), 1806 (1/2C), 1788. b) Corner posts (3/3) 1865(C), 1837, 1849. Braces (3/3) 1860, 1851, 1851. Stud (1/2) 1865(C). Site Master 1636-1889 ANTIETAM (t = 9.85 MKF; 8.90 MD2009; 8.88 ALLENS).

The Mary Locher Cabin, at its largest, was once a three-bay structure. The primary bay was constructed from logs with overlapping ends and a half-story chamber above. To the south of this was added a second log bay composed of three hewn-log walls abutting the original structure; the second bay probably functioned as a large parlor with a half-story sleeping loft above. The last addition was built on the north gable of the primary building and was a frame structure clad with vertical boarding that included a fireplace and a set of winding box stairs providing access to a half-story chamber above. The large fireplace suggests that this addition was a kitchen. The southern bay containing the parlor and sleeping loft collapsed in the 1940s and only the central log bay and the northern framed addition have survived to the present day.

Worthington, M J, and Seiter, J I, 2011 ' The Tree-Ring Dating of the Mary Locher Cabin, Joseph Poffenberger Barn, Wash House, Wagon Shed, and Roulette House, all in Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, Maryland', unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2011/03.

Link to the Historic American Buildings Survey for this building here.





Middlekauf Farm; Kelly’s Purchase, Sharpsburg. Maryland (39.495998, -77.744681)

(a) Primary phase Felling dates: Winter 1749/50, Spring 1750, Summer 1750, and Winter 1750/51

(b) Ground-floor partition wall Felling dates: Winter 1773/4

(c) Kitchen extension Felling date: Spring 1790

(d) Alteration for attic staircase Felling date: Winter 1813/14

(a) Ceiling joists 1750(C, 26C), 1749(12¼C, 13¼C, 13½C, 29C), 1747(21), 1740(6); (b) Studs 1773(C3), 1767, 1761(4); (c) Mantel beam 1789(23¼C); Rafters (0/3), Upstairs ceiling joists (0/3); (d) Stair joist 1813(30C). Site Master: 1630-1813 MKF (t = 7.5 ALLENS; 6.3 WATCH; 5.3 PIEDMONT).

The early house known as Kelly’s Purchase was constructed in two periods. The original house is of brick construction, 1½ stories with flush chimneys at each end of the pitched gable roof. The interior consists of three rooms on the first story and two finished chambers in the garret. This dwelling is representative in form and detail of a house type built in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia from the 1730s to about 1760. The level of finish indicates it was intended as the residence of the owner rather than as a tenancy. At an early date, the house was enlarged to the east by a kitchen wing constructed of neatly laid fieldstone. Finishes in the wing are typical of the last quarter of the eighteenth century and the uniform use of hand-forged nails indicates the house should date no later than the second decade of the nineteenth century. The wing is representative of vernacular building practices in Washington County, Maryland, suggesting a distinct break with the aesthetic desires of the original builder. The core samples from the original brick house date from a two-year period—winter of 1749/50 and winter of 1750/51, with construction most likely initiated in the spring of 1751 by Thomas Kelly. Samples from the interior first-floor partition indicate an important building campaign to complete the main house in the winter of 1773/74. While based on a limited sample, the 1790 tree-ring date for the stone wing is a good fit with the documentary evidence, indicating it was built following John Middlekauf’s acquisition of the property in 1788. The 1813 date for a joist aligned with the stair in the wing suggests another period of modification to the interior later in the Middlekauf family ownership. Miles, D H, and Worthington, M J, 2006 “The Tree-Ring Dating of Middlekauf Farm, Sharpsburg, Maryland”, ODL unpubl rep 2006/13.

Link to the Historic American Buildings Survey for this building here.



Roulette House

ROULETTE HOUSE, Sharpsburg, Washington County, Maryland (39.47581N; -77.73747W)

a) Primary Phase Felling date: Summer 1774
b)Tertiary Phase Felling date: Winter 1810/1

a) Plates (2/2) 1773 (½C) , 1768 . Floor joist (1/1) 1758. b) Floor Joist (1/5) 1810 (C). Site Master 1636-1889      bnghty56xcsdwe23 (t = 9.85 MKF; 8.90 MD2009; 8.88 ALLENS).

The Roulette House is a long and narrow structure of stone, log, and frame construction divided into three sections. The original part of the house is a one-story structure with small six-over-six windows, a deep overhanging porch extending along the front elevation, and a large exterior stone chimney topped with brick situated in the south gable end. Attached to the north of the original building are two newer additions, each with its own chimney, one located where the wall of the first addition meets the older portion of the house and the other being a bake oven built into the north gable end of the third section. A second separate front elevation porch runs along the length of the northernmost section. The gabled roof, which runs contiguously over all three sections, is interrupted in the front of the two newer sections by two gabled dormers.

Worthington, M J, and Seiter, J I, 2011 ' The Tree-Ring Dating of the Mary Locher Cabin, Joseph Poffenberger Barn, Wash House, Wagon Shed, and Roulette House, all in Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, Maryland', unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2011/03.

Link to Historic American Buildings Survey site for this building here.



Bostwick Hall
(Photograph by John O. Boucher, Historic American Buildings Survey, HABS MD,17-BLAD,1—7)

Bostwick Hall, 3901 48th Street, Bladensburg, Prince George's County, Maryland (38.93771, -76.93451)

a) Main House Felling date: Summer 1746


Brace (1/1) 1745 (C). Individual sample 1678-1745 (oak) bosw1 (t = 7.28 MTVx3; 6.63 VA2011; 6.39 PIEDMO).

Bostwick Hall is being used as a study building for students taking the HISP 655 American Vernacular Architecture and Documentation course as part of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation at the University of Maryland’s School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. To allow as many students as possible to see the entire dendrochronological process being undertaken, it is planned to take one sample each time the course is offered. As more samples are taken, this interim report will be updated to show any new findings. A final report will be produced once six to ten samples have been collected, the normal amount required for a complete dendrochronological study.

Please contact Michael Worthington at michael@dendrochronology.com to make sure you are using the most up-to-date interim report.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I 2012 The Tree-Ring Dating of Bostwick Hall, 3901 48th Street, Bladensburg, Prince George's County, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2012/11

Link to Historic American Buildings Survey site for this building here.




Compton bassett Chapel
(Photograph of Compton Bassett Chapel taken in 1936. Courtesy of the Historic American Buildings Survey, Delos H. Smith, photographer.)

Compton Bassett Chapel, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, Maryland (38.815024, -76.718203)

a) Primary phase of chapel Felling date: Spring 1778, Spring 1779


(a) Floor joists (3/3) 1762, 1772, 1777 (¼C); Chimney trimmer (1/1) 1778 (¼C). Site Master 1607-1778 CBCMx1 (t = 6.41 MTVx1; 6.02 DC-AREA; 5.98 WILDx1).

The Compton Bassett Chapel was previously thought to be an intact example of an 18th-century Catholic chapel. A recent reassessment (as of spring 2013) has hypothesized that it was in fact built as a small brick plantation office that was subsequently enlarged and converted into a storehouse, then converted again into a chapel during a mid-19th century remodeling. A dendrochronological study of the chapel was undertaken in an attempt to date the primary and secondary construction phases. The oak timbers in the primary phase provided felling dates of the spring of 1778 and the spring of 1779, suggesting that the chapel was built in the spring of 1779 or shortly thereafter. The tulip poplar timbers in the secondary construction phase were too decayed to allow successful coring, so must remain undated.

Photograph of Compton Bassett Chapel taken in 1936. Courtesy of the Historic American Buildings Survey, Delos H. Smith, photographer.

Link to Historic American Buildings Survey site for this building here.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I, 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Compton Bassett Chapel, Upper Marlboro, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2013/04



Compton Bassett House


Compton Bassett House, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, Maryland (38.81538, -76.71825)

a) Primary phase of house Felling date: Winter 1786/7, Winter 1787/8


Rafters (9/12) 1786 (C), 1787 (C). Site Master 1684-1787 CBHMx1 (t = 10.62 MELx2; 6.12 EVAYP7; 5.99 GLOx2).

Compton Bassett is one of the finest Georgian mansions in Prince George’s County, with a hipped roof, a center-hall plan, and fine interior detailing. A dendrochronological study of the house was undertaken in an attempt to date the primary construction phase. The tulip poplar timbers in the primary phase provided felling dates of the winter of 1786/7 and the winter of 1787/8, suggesting that the house was built in the winter of 1787/8 or shortly thereafter.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I, 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Compton Bassett House And Outbuildings, Upper Marlboro, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2013/09



Dairy


Compton Bassett Dairy, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, Maryland (38.815617, -76.718332)

a) Primary phase of dairy Felling date: After 1741


Wallplate (0/1); Ceiling joists (1/5) 1741 (h/w only). Site Master CBDMx1 (t =undated), sample 1677-1741 cbdm6 (t = 6.18 MONTP; 6.03 FMTx1; 5.66 WLVx1).

The Compton Bassett Dairy is a small rectangular building with brick exterior walls constructed in Flemish bond. The roof is covered with wooden shingles and the interior is plastered out to the level of the wallplates.

Although six tulip polar timbers were sampled, only one was found to date. The timber did not retain complete sapwood and therefore only a date of after 1741could be assigned to the building.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I, 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Compton Bassett House And Outbuildings, Upper Marlboro, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2013/09



Roulette Barn


Roulette Barn, Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, Maryland (39.47490, -77.73712)

(a) Primary barn structure Felling date: Winter 1853/4, Winter 1854/5
(b) Reused timbers from log cabin Felling date: Winter 1793/4

(a) Rail (2/2) 1853, 1854 (C); Post (6/7), 1854 (C), 1844; Stud (1/1) 1854 (C); Joist (1/1) 1854 (C).
(b) Joist (4/4) 1793 (C); 1774, 1791. Site Master 1632-1854 RBMDx1 (t =15.49 ANTIETAM; 10.57 MD2011; 9.37 ALLENS).

The Roulette Barn is a one-and-a-half story, timber-frame barn with a stone foundation located in Antietam National Battlefield. Several of the logs used in the main floor of the barn have notches on their ends, suggesting that they were reused from an earlier log cabin. This study has targeted both the original primary construction phase of the barn as well as the reused timbers from the former log cabin. Dendrochronological analysis has shown that the original barn structure was built in the winter of 1854/5 or shortly thereafter, and that the reused timbers were felled in the winter of 1793/4, suggesting a construction date for the log cabin of the winter of 1793/4 or shortly thereafter.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I, 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Roulette Barn, Antietam National Battlefield, Washington County, Maryland, unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2013/04



Friendship Farm MD

Friendship Farm, Thurmont, Maryland (39.564131, -77.381655
)

(a) Log House Felling dates: Spring 1794, Winter 1794/5 and Spring 1795
(b) Historic Barn Felling dates: Summer 1856, Winter 1856/7

(a) Logs (9/9) 1793 (¼ C), 1794 (C, ¼C). (b) Bottom plate (1/1) 1855 (½C); Summer beam (1/1) 1856 (C). Site Master 1610-1856 FDSMx1 (t = 10.91 DC-AREA2; 10.65 ALLENS; 9.97 MD2011). Single dated
sample 1776-1855 fdsm11 (t = 6.57 DC-AREA; 5.84 MD2011; 5.63 NJ002).

A large two-story log house and a stone barn located at Friendship Farm in Thurmont, Maryland, were assessed for their potential for dendrochronology. Both were successfully dated, the house giving precise felling dates of the spring of 1794 through to the spring of 1795 and the barn giving precise felling dates of the summer of 1856 and the winter of 1856/7. It is probable that the structures were constructed at the time of or shortly after the latest felling date in each case, namely the spring of 1795 for the house and the winter of 1856/7 for the barn.

Worthington, M J and Seiter, J I 2013 “The Tree-Ring Dating of the Log House and Historic Barn at Friendship Farm, Thurmont, Maryland” unpublished Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory archive report 2013/03



Wilderness

The Wilderness, Trappe, Maryland (38.639570, -76.135657
)

(a) East Range Felling dates: Winter 1807/8
(b) West Range Felling dates: Winter 1807/8; Spring 1808
(c) Smokehouse Felling dates: 1806-1816

(a) Floor joists (3/3) 1807 (C), 1789; Chimney trimmer (1/2) 1807. (b) Floor joists (7/7) 1807 (C, ¼C) 1785, 1786, 1804; (c) Joist (1/2) 1788. Site Master 1693-1807 WILDx1 (t = 9.09 LMP; 8.23 ESHORE1; 7.90 PIEDMO).

The Wilderness is a multi-period historic home overlooking the Choptank River in Talbot County, Maryland. Although documentary evidence for the Wilderness stretches back to the mid-seventeenth century, it achieved its greatest prominence in the mid-nineteenth century as the birthplace of Daniel Martin, the twentieth governor of Maryland. The present-day house is composed of two blocks (an east range and a west range) with a modern kitchen extension to the east and several historic outbuildings (including a smokehouse and a dairy) arranged around the kitchen courtyard. A dendrochronological study of the Wilderness was undertaken in an attempt to date the primary construction phase of the east range, the west range, and the smokehouse. The oak timbers in the east range provided a felling date of the winter of 1807/8, the timbers in the west range provided felling dates of the winter of 1807/8 and the spring of 1808, and a single sample from the smokehouse provided a felling date range of 1806 to 1816. 

Worthington, M.J. and Seiter, J.I 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Wilderness, Trappe, Maryland Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory Report 2013/01



Stubbs Barn

Stubbs Barn, Wheaton Regional Park, Wheaton, Montgomery County, Maryland (Lat 39.05668, Long -77.04218
)

Primary structure             Felling dates: Winter 1842/3, Summer 1843, Winter 1843/4


Brace (1/1) 1842 (C); Intermediate post (2/2) 1842 (C), 1842 (½C); Rail (1/3) 1843 (C); Floor joist (2/3) 1842 (½C), 1843 (C); Longitudinal beam (1/1) 1838 (h/w only) Site Master 1657-1843 STUBx1 (t = 9.46 MD2011; 7.83 MCYx3; 7.79 DC-AREA; 7.70 UTCx1 ).

The Stubbs Barn is a three-story, three-bay bank barn that was part of the Shawfield, or Shorefield, farm, in Wheaton, Maryland. Its exterior does not indicate the extent of its impressiveness. It has a dry stack stone foundation and vertical board cladding for its walls. The roof is covered in standing-seam metal. The north-west facing elevation features a door into the stable level next to a window. This paired opening is set within a wall that is partially clad in stone. The middle level of this elevation features a sliding door. There are no other windows on this elevation. The north-east facing elevation features ground-level, small window openings, some with frames and sash intact and others without any interior sash. The interior of the barn reveals a stable level that still contains animal stalls and field equipment. The joists separating the stable level from the remaining two-story barn above are hewn on the bottom, but still feature some round bark. The barn is framed in some of the largest hewn members seen in the county. The bents contain two levels of hewn beams and all vertical and horizontal framing members are pegged together. Original built-in ladders allow for movement between the middle and upper stories of the barn, which are currently open with no floors separating them. 

Worthington, M.J. and Seiter, J.I 2013 The Tree-Ring Dating of Stubbs Barn, Wheaton, Montgomery County, Maryland, Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory Report 2011/13



Bostwick Hall

(Photograph of Bostwick Hall. Courtesy of the Historic American Buildings Survey, HABS MD 615 7.)

Bostwick Hall, 3901 48th Street, Bladensburg, Prince George's County (38.93771, -76.93451
)

Primary structure             Felling dates: Summer 1746


Brace (1/1) 1745 (C). Individual sample 1678-1745 (oak) bosw1 (t = 7.28 MTVx3; 6.63 VA2011; 6.39 PIEDMO).

Bostwick Hall is being used as a study building for students taking the HISP 655 American Vernacular Architecture and Documentation course as part of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation at the University of Maryland’s School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. To allow as many students as possible to see the entire dendrochronological process being undertaken, it is planned to take one sample each time the course is offered. As more samples are taken, this interim report will be updated to show any new findings. A final report will be produced once six to ten samples have been collected, the normal amount required for a complete dendrochronological study.

Please contact Michael Worthington at michael@dendrochronology.com to make sure you are using the most up-to-date interim report. 

Worthington, M.J. and Seiter, J.I 2012 The Tree-Ring Dating of  Bostwick Hall, 3901 48th Street, Bladensburg, Prince George's County, Maryland, Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory Report 2012/11

Link to The Town of Bladensburg site for this building here.