ALTON, The Army and Navy Stores, 23 High Street (SU 716 395)

Felling dates: Winter 1500/1501 and Spring 1501

Common rafter 1500(29¼C); Principal post 1500 (31C); Wall plate 1500 (20C); Purlin 1494 (15); Principal rafter 1500 (18C). Site Master 1350-1500 ARMYNAVY (t=10.1 CHAWTON; 9.7 HANTS97; 8.3 SENG98)

The Army and Navy Stores, Alton contains a former lodging range of an important town-centre inn.  It is a four-bay structure with half-hipped roof, clasped purlins and queen struts. The gallery for access to the first-floor lodging rooms is illustrated in an early 19th-century drawing but has since been removed.   The walls have large-panel framing and long, curved braces.  The range stands beside the river Wey and there is documentary and mortice evidence for doors to former latrines that overhung the river.  Dating funded by East Hampshire District Council.  (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

ASHLEY, Ashley Cottage, (SU 383 311)

Felling dates: Spring 1567 and Summer-winter 1567/8

(a)     Primary phase

Wall plate 1566(18¼C); Posts (1567 (27C, 29C); Principal rafter (0/1).

(b)     Inserted axial beam

Felling date: Winter 1628/9

Axial beam 1628 (23C).  Site Master 1493-1628  ASHLEY3 (t=6.1 NUFF; 6.1 EXTON; 6.0 WHTOWER5)

Ashley Cottage, Ashley is a small house, only 1½ storeys high.  Only the original hall and parlour bays survive and the service bay has been substantially rebuilt.  the external walls have small-panel framing and short, straight braces.  The half-hipped roof has clasped purlins and queen struts.  Although built in 1567/8 (felling date), it was clearly intended that the central bay should be an open hall, for it has an internal jetty at the high end and the rafters above are well sooted.  A spine beam with transverse joists was inserted in the hall and has been ascribed a felling date of winter 1628/9.  It is associated with an inserted brick chimney at the low end.  Dating supported by Dr Peter Horsey.  (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

ASHLEY, Little Thatches (SU 383 311), Cruck range         

Felling date range: 1451-83

Crucks 1442(h/s); Purlins (0/3); Collar (0/1).  Site Master 1355-1442 lta2 (t = 6.5 ASHLEY1; 5.4 TCHBRNPO; 5.2 FIELDPB)

Three bays of this cruck house survive, the parlour bay having been rebuilt in c.1600. It has a single-bay hall and the service end comprises one full bay with a small bay 7’- 6” in length beneath a hipped end. A complete cruck truss has apex type F1. Lewis, E. et al. Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area, 1988, Winchester, pp. 48-9. (Miles and Worthington 2003, VA 34, list 141)

ASHLEY, The Old Manor (SU 384 311)

(a)     Service wing

Felling dates: Summer 1520; Spring 1521

Collar 1520 (19¼C); Tiebeam 1519 (22½C); Brace (0/1).  Site Master 1402-1529 ASHLEY1 (t=8.4 SOUTH; 7.6 MASTERAL; 7.3 EXTON)

(b)     Inserted door to Service wing

Felling date: Spring 1596

Door post 1595 (16¼C).  Site Master 1541-1595 ash13 (t=6.9 CHAWTON1; 6.1 MASTERAL; 5.8 YORKS2)

(c)     Hall range

Felling dates: Winter 1529/30; Summer 1530

Stud 1529 (18½C); Rafters 1529 (18½C); 1529 (19C); Tiebeams 1513 (13); 1497 (H/S); Purlin 1494 (H/S).

(d)     Inserted floor to hall

Felling date: Winter 1605/6?

Joists 4/5   1605 (21C); 1604 (21); 1584 (H/S); 1578 (H/S); Axial beam 1588 (H/S). Site Master 1543-1605 ASHLEY2 (t=5.7 MC16; 4.7 ENGLAND; 4.6 GIERTZ)

The Old Manor, Ashley is composed of two timber-framed structures: a house dated to 1529/30, and what is at present a storehouse standing behind the house and dated to 1521.   The storehouse is a three-bay structure with a clasped-purlin and queen-post roof.  The end bay nearer to the house was originally open and has heavy sooting on its rafters.  The two remaining bays were floored with unchamfered, axial joists.  This building is interpreted as a detached kitchen and is similar to examples discovered in Sussex by David Martin.  The two floored bays may have been used for storage or for the accommodation of servants or elderly members of the family

The parlour bay and hall of the main house still survive, although the service area has been rebuilt.  Once again, the roof is of clasped-purlin construction with queen struts.  The central bay was clearly intended as an open hall, for axial joists from the parlour project into the high end to create an internal jetty.  However, the roof above, which also dates to 1529/30, is unsooted.  It would seem as if, having built a brand-new detached kitchen, it was unnecessary to cook in the hall and any heating may have been provided by a charcoal brazier.  The hall floor, with heavy axial beam and transverse joists, have dated to 1605/6. See Individual Case Studies (Roberts 1997, VA 28, 115-6) (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

BARTON STACEY, Church Farm (SU 434 413)

Felling dates: Winter 1538/9, Winter 1539/40, Spring 1540

Tiebeam 1538(33C); Wall plates 1514(h/s), 1539(25C); Stud 1539(32¼C); Principal post 1532(21+(5-10C NM)); Joist 1519(h/s). Site Master 1381-1539 BRTNSTCY (t = 10.4 HANTS97; 10.2 LONDON; 9.5 WC_KITCH)

This is a five-bay, timber-framed house under a single ridge. At one end is a good quality two-bay solar with a parlour beneath, whose ceiling has moulded joists carrying boards let into rebates. An apparently original double door in the side of the parlour implies an early wing that has been completely rebuilt. The two-bay hall seems to have been crossed by a gallery between the solar and a chamber over the single-bay service room. Church Farm and surrounding land belonged to the rectory of Barton Stacey, held by Llanthony Abbey in Gloucester before the Dissolution. In 1530 the abbey leased the rectory, its fruits and tithes but not the advowson, to a Mr Salmon for 60 years, and he presumably rebuilt the house. In 1541, the rectory was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Winchester Cathedral. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

BASINGSTOKE, Church Street, Church Cottage (SU 636 521)

(a)     North cross wing

Felling date: Spring 1527

(b)     Extension of north wing (Bay 1 of barn)  

Felling date: Winter 1537/8

(c)     Hall range          

Felling dates: Spring 1539; Winter 1540/1; Winter 1541/2

(d)     West end section of barn

Felling date ranges: 1702-24; 1712-44

(e)     Central trusses of barn (re-used?)           

Felling date: Winter 1746/7

All timbers (18/23). (a) Storey rail 1502(4), 1523(34?C); Post 1526(15¼C); Stud 1526(17¼C); (b) Aisle tie 1512(2); Tiebeam 1531(17); Arcade post 1537(19C); (c) Axial beam 1510(h/s); Wall plate 1538(31¼C); Posts 1540(26C), 1541(22C); (d) Tiebeam 1703(20); Arcade post 1711(8); (e) Tiebeams 1744(11), 1746(16C); Arcade posts 1726(h/s+18NM), 1746(15C), 1746(23C). Site Masters 1364-1541 BSNGSTK1 (t = 13.9 HANTS02; 11.2 OVERTON3; 10.8 WHANNEY); 1635-1746 BSNGSTK2 (t = 10.7 HANTS02; 9.3 CRBCR2; 8.8 CRMASQ01)

This is a complex of five distinct timber-framed structures. The two oldest sections are on the north-east side and comprise a four-bay low-end cross wing (a), dating to 1527 and originally floored, with a fifth bay (b), now forming part of an in-line barn, with a single precise felling date of 1537/8. The last bay of (a) is very narrow and may have served as a smoke bay, perhaps to an internal kitchen. To the south of the cross-wing is a floored hall block (c) added in about 1542. It now has no parlour cross wing, and evidence of an internal doorway suggests that one was located to the west of the hall rather than to the south. The hall block is jettied, close studded with brick nogging, an oriel window at least on the ground floor, and a stone and brick chimney stack backing on to a cross-passage. Beyond the western extension of the north cross-wing (b) and in line with it are a further five aisled bays (d), with felling dates of 1702-24 and 1712-44 for the western end and winter 1746/7 for the middle section (e). All the ranges have queen-strut and clasped-purlin roofs, a type used in the area from the later medieval period until at least 1800. Work part-funded by Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council; building description by Bill Fergie. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

BAUGHURST, Corner Cottage (SU 579 618)

Felling dates: Winter 1579/80; Winter 1580/1

Tiebeams 1565(h/s), 1580(21C); Wallplate 1555(h/s); Purlin 1568(1); Rafters 1579(25C), 1580(15C). Site Master 1424–1580 BAUGHRST (t = 8.8 SKYERSFM, 7.9 POLANDF1, 7.6 BSNGSTK1).

This is a small, 1½-storey thatched house of three bays. The framing is in small panels with straight braces and the roof is of clasped-purlin, queen-strut construction. The central bay appears to have been the hall, because one cross-frame has evidence for a high bench and a side door to what was presumably the arlour bay. It is not clear whether this bay was originally open to the roof. At present it has substantial axial ceiling joists but these are set several inches above the cross beams; thus, if primary, the joists have clearly been repositioned. However, the dendrochronology shows that these joists failed to match the timbers from the roof, suggesting that they may well belong to a secondary phase; if so, we have here the latest purpose-built open-hall house so far recorded in Hampshire. What was presumably a kitchen bay was originally open, with a sooted roof; it has evidence for original opposed doors in the outer walls adjacent to the hall bay.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

BENTLEY, 1 Somerset’s Cottages (SU 783 439)

Felling date: WWinter 1311/12

Crucks 1311(20C), 1311(17C); Purlin 1296(6). Site Master 1205-1311 BENTLEY1 (t = 9.1 MASTERAL; 8.2 LONDON; 8.1 OXON93).

Three trusses of a probable four-bay cruck house survive. The evidence suggests that the two-bay hall was originally flanked by in-line service and parlour bays. The assumed parlour bay was rebuilt in the seventeenth century. Crucks in Hampshire exhibit a range of apex treatments, and in this house all three surviving cruck couples have different apex details. The impressive central hall truss has truncated crucks and an arch-braced collar supporting a tall king post which in turn supports the ridge beam. The truss between the hall and the presumed service bay has a type C apex, although both blades have short, neatly scarfed-on extensions. The blades of the truss at the other end of the hall also stop short of the ridge and carry a king post which links two high collars and then supports the ridge (variant of the F1 apex). This is the earliest domestic cruck building so far dated in the county. It shares features with the early cruck at nearby Dogmersfield (felling date: winter 1335/6; VA 38,127) including the use of a king post to support the ridge, and of almost straight square-section windbraces. Dating commissioned by the Hampshire Field Club and the owner.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39) list 203)/p>

BENTWORTH, Hall Place (SU 663 399)
(a) Arcade plate Felling date: after 1248

(b) Entrance porch Felling date range: 1295-1327

(c) West crosswing Felling date: 1479/80

(d) East crosswing roof, and reused timbers in east crosswing floor Felling date: Spring 1520

(e) Front gable roof, inserted floors and window lintel in solar Felling dates: 1603; 1604

(a) Arcade plate 1226(+13NM); (b) Joists 1255, 1268, 1289(h/s). Site Master 1098-1289 BNTWRTH1 (t = 11.8 HANTS02; 10.7 LONDON; 9.5 OXON93). (c) Principal rafters 1454(h/s), 1458(h/s), 1461(7); Collar 1460(h/s); Floor joist 1458(h/s); Floor beam 1460(h/s); Stud 1475(35+4NM). Site Master 1358-1475 BNTWRTH2 (7.5 MDM11X; 6.9 HANTS02; 6.4 GOLEIGH1). (d) Collar 1488; Rafters 1519(18¼C), 1519(41¼C); Reused joists 1494(h/s), 1495(h/s). Site Master 1389-1519 BNTWRTH3 (t = 7.7 HANTS02; 7.7 WCCLOSE3; 7.2 ABTSBRTN). (e) Axial floor beams 1555(3), 1560(h/s); Window lintel 1574(h/s); Joists 1581(h/s), 1603(28C); Principal rafters 1589(h/s), 1589(14), 1602(31½C), 1603(23½C); Purlin 1602(19¼C). Site Master 1442-1603 BNTWRTH4 (t = 10.3 HANTS02; 9.6 KSMASQ05; 8.9 WALES97).

This large H-plan manor house has walls composed of flints with dressings of local sandstone. Low side walls and a fragment of arcade plate show that it was built as an aisled hall. The date range of 1295-1327 given to the in situ joists above the entrance porch is also a plausible date range for the remains of stone doorways at the high and low ends of the hall. A possibly coeval detached chapel failed to date. A high-end crosswing of 3 bays was dated to 1479/80 and a low-end crosswing to 1520. The hall was floored over and a new, raised hall roof was erected in 1603 or 1604. This date probably marks the insertion of the present stone chimney stack at the low end of the hall which created a lobby-entry plan.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

BINSTED, West Court (SU 765 411)

(a) Hall range Felling date: Winter 1314/15

(b) Barn (SU 765 410) Felling date range: 1296-1304 (OxCal; unrefined 1288-1320)

(a) Tiebeams (1/2) 1314(25C); Base cruck 1294(H/S); Arcade post (0/1); Arcade plate (0/1); Arch brace (0/1); (b) Arcade posts 1287(H/S), 1277(H/S), 1274(H/S)2, 1254; Aisle post 1281(H/S); Wall plates 1284(H/S), 1281(H/S); Aisle tie 1272(H/S); Arch brace 1282(1). Site Masters (a) 1209-1314 BINSTED1 (t = 6.0 TUDRTVRN; 5.6 SOMRST04; 5.5 LONGSUTN); (b) 1171-1287 BINSTED2 (t = 14.8 HANTS02; 12.2 BNTWRTH1; 10.9 OLDCHRCH.

West Court is a two-bay base-cruck hall with a crown-post roof. There is evidence for an in-line service bay in the form of notched-lap collars extending beyond the low-end truss. This truss retains its arcade posts which are chamfered on all four sides at ground-floor level where there is no mortice evidence for a partition. The high-end truss survives at first-floor level and halved across its tiebeam is an arch-braced truss of an early solar cross-wing. There are arcade braces at both end-trusses but not at the central base-cruck truss. The barn was originally a four-bay aisled structure with hip aisles at either end. Passing braces were halved across tiebeams, arcade posts and aisle ties but tenoned into the aisle posts. The wall plates have grooved soffits, presumably to hold vertical planking. It has curved arch and arcade braces. Strangely, the waggon entrance appears to have been in an end bay rather than in one of the two central bays. The roof has been reconstructed, although the absence of mortices in the upper faces of the tiebeams suggests an original sans-purlin roof. Some original rafters survive but no principal rafters. A post-medieval extension of one bay reuses some of the original end-aisle timbers. Both buildings were erected for Richard de Westcote who was active between 1296 and his death in 1333. Dating commissioned by the owner, the Hampshire Buildings Survey Group, and the Hampshire Field Club.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

BISHOP’S WALTHAM, Old Stables (at the Palace) (SU 553 173)

Felling date range: 1300–15

Unidentified timber 1249; Brace 1278(h/s); Braces from king post to rafter 1273(h/s), 1291(h/s). Site Master 1133–1291 BISHWTHM (t = 12.9 WINCATH2, 12.8 HANTS02, 11.9 CHIVES).

The building is described as of timber and fl int, with later brick, probably of c. 1300 (E. Mercer, English Vernacular Houses: A Study of Traditional Farmhouses and Cottages (RCHME/HMSO, 1975), 163); since this was written, the timbers of one truss have been taken down and removed to storage at the Weald and Downland Museum, Singleton (Sussex). This truss has a tiebeam carrying a tall, square-sectioned king post; this is braced from the post to the ridge, and from the post to the principal rafters, which carry clasped purlins. Lap joints remain on the tie for braces from the wall posts. Archaeological excavation showed that the building had a single aisle, and documentary evidence suggests that it was the bishop of Winchester’s great barn.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

BISHOP’S WALTHAM, Moysents (SU 556 176)

(a)     Primary phase

Felling dates: Winter 1363/4; Winter 1371/2

Rafter 1371 (24C); Tiebeams (1/2) 1363 (57C); Principal post 1313 (H/S); Crown post brace 1272. Site Master 1150-1363 MOYSENTS (t=7.6 MANORCOT; 7.1 ROCKBORN; 6.1 KINGST1)

(b)     End bay reconstruction

Felling date range: 1595-1627

Crown post 1586 (H/S); Wall plate (0/1). Site Master 1456-1586 moy7 (t=6.1 LEOMSTR2; 5.3 WNCHSTR2; 5.2 MOTISFNT)

Moysents, Bishop’s Waltham, stands at the corner of two streets in a small market town.  It is a two bay structure with a simple crown-post roof in which two short, straight braces rise to the collar purlin.  Its timbers have been ascribed a latest felling date of 1371/2.  Its gable end faces the principal street and here there is a ‘gallery’ 4 feet 6 inches wide with axial joists of a typically medieval type.  The remainder of the floor is composed of a post-medieval spine beam with transverse joists.  This feature, together with some sooting on the rafters led to an initial suggestion that it had originally been an open hall (E. Lewis et al 1988 Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area, 58-60).  Subsequent work has revealed the mortices of ‘flat-laid’ medieval joists in a side girt, showing that the remainder of the structure had, in fact, been originally floored with transverse joists.  It thus appears that the original structure was a two-bay chamber block and that the ‘gallery’ represents an early form of lodged, or ‘tacked-on’ jetty (see Miles and Haddon-Reese 1996 p100 n.7).  The sooted rafters may either be explained by a secondary conversion to an open hall, or by seepage from an adjacent hall of which this was the cross wing.  A further, aligned range at the rear of this building, with a similar crown post was also sampled, the date range from the crown post of 1595-1627 shows this end to be a later extension. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

BOARHUNT, Manor Farm (SU 604 084), West or Straw Barn      

Felling date: Winter 1551/2

Posts 1551(16C), 1535(h/s), 1531(h/s); Studs (2/3) 1537(h/s), 1536(h/s); Aisle tie 1526(h/s); Arcade brace (0/1). Site Master 1412-1551 BOARHNT1 (t = 10 EXTON; 8.2 HANTS02; 8.1 MOTISFNT)

A former monastic property, acquired after the Dissolution in 1545 by Ralph Henslowe, gentleman, who built the barn. It has 4 bays and a single aisle. The queen-post roof has clasped purlins above a tier of aligned butt purlins. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

BOARHUNT, North Boarhunt, Bere Farm House (SU 596 095)                                      

Felling date range (OxCal modelled): 1599-1614 (unrefined 1589-1621)

Transverse beam 1586(H/S); Tiebeams 1587(10), 1585(H/S+10NM), 1579(H/S), 1565(H/S); Joist (0/1). Site Master 1394-1587 BEREFHNB (t = 10 EXTON; 8.2 HANTS02; 8.1 MOTISFNT)

This farmhouse is one of the first houses in Hampshire below manorial level to be built entirely of brick. It is a large building, approximately 66 ft by 25 ft, of rectangular plan with a butt-purlin roof of seven bays. On the ground floor, a lobby entry with back-to-back chimney leads on one side to a two-bay parlour and on the other to a hall and probable service bay. Bridging beams with three-inch wide chamfers and ogee stops support axial joists. In 1867, the farm comprised 259 acres. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

BRAMLEY, Bramley Manor (SU 645 588)

Felling dates: Spring 1544 and Winter 1545/6

Principal rafter 1543 (28¼C); Strut 1523 (3); Purlin 1545 (21C); Tiebeam 1514 (H/S); Rafters (0/2). Site Master 1364-1545 BRAMLEY (t=8.7 HANTS97; 8.3 OXON93; 8.0 MC19)

Bramley Manor, Bramley is a house of some size and quality, although not historically a manor house.  Its timbers have been dated to 1545/6 and this date accords well with its hearth-passage plan, an arrangement much favoured for more substantial houses in Hampshire at this time.  It is an H-shaped house with a two-bay hall set between two, three-bay cross wings.  The entire front is close-studded.  The roof has clasped purlins and queen struts. The low-end cross wing contains an open, single-bay kitchen with heavily sooted rafters.  Dating funded by Basingstoke & Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

BURGHCLERE, The Manor House, Old Burghclere (SU 469 579)

(a)     Hall range

Felling dates: Winter 1328/9?

(b) North Cross-wing  

Felling dates: Winter 1482/3

(a) Rafter 1328 (35C?); Collar purlin 1305 (H/S); Crown post (0/1); Principal rafter (0/1); (b) Rafters 1482 (19C, 29C); Joist 1482 (30C); Purlin (0/1). Site Masters (a) 1204-1328 BURCLER1 (t=7.9 MANORCOT; 5.1 KINGST1; 4.6 READING); (b) 1373-1482 BURCLERE2 (t= 7.0 BURCLERE3; 6.9 PRYCOTT2; 5.4 TULLYS)

(a) (1997) The Manor House, Old Burghclere, is a large house, with a hall and two cross-wings, that was formerly a rectory.   Like many wealthy medieval rectories, it was built on an aristocratic scale.  Beyond the high end of the hall is a four-bay solar with a clasped purlin roof and arch-braced tie beams in the intermediate trusses.  At the low end of the hall is a service cross wing with a queen-strut roof and V-struts above the collars.  On stylistic grounds, both cross wings would seem to be of late-medieval period, but the lower cross wing failed to date, and the upper one was not sampled.  The central hall, which dated to 1328/9, is of two bays and has a plain,  crown-post roof with four straight braces to the central crown post.  The end trusses are raised aisles and this is probably the case with the central truss, although this cannot be ascertained with certainty at present.  The hall, which has mass walls, is approximately 31 feet 9 inches long, 28 feet 3 inches wide, and 30 feet 3 inches high. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

(b) (2005) The hall range of the former rectory house has already been dated to 1328/9? (Miles and Worthington  1997  VA28, list 85: Roberts Hampshire Houses 1250-1700 2003, 260).  The service (north) cross-wing, which has a queen-strut roof and v-struts above the collars, failed to date at the time, but the dating of the Manor Farm barn (VA30, list 101) has now provided a suitable reference chronology. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

BURGHCLERE, Burghclere Manor Barn, Old Burghclere (SU 469 579)

Felling dates: Winter 1450/51 and Summer 1451

Arcade brace 1450 (28C); Passing brace 1450 (25C); Studs (1/2) 1450 (14C); Arcade plate 1450 (17½C); Principal rafters (1/2) 1422 (H/S). Site Master 1321-1450 BURCLER3 (t=6.2 HANTS97; 5.6 FRDABBY1; 5.4 GEORGIN1)

Manor Barn, Old Burghclere is an 8-bay, aisled barn with two porches.  Opposite the porches were winnowing doors but no entrance wide enough for a waggon.  It originally had one set of purlins that have apparently failed and have been replaced with two tiers of roughly-lodged purlins.  The barn was gabled at both ends and each truss had queen struts to collars.  Documentary sources record payment to a carpenter to build a barn of 8 bays and two porches at Old Burghclere in 1451/52.  Dating funded by Basingstoke & Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

CHAWTON, Chawton House (SU 709 370)

(a)     Main hall range and North cross-wing

Felling date: Winter 1582/3

(b)     North-east wing

Felling dateWinter 1589/90

(a) Struts 1582 (24C), 1571 (H/S?); Joist 1582 (18C); Transverse beam 1582 (23C). (b) Joist 1589/90 (25C); Transverse beam 1568 (H/S). Site Master 1406-1589 CHAWTON3 (t=14.9 HANTS97; 12.82 MASTERAL; 10.0 WC KITCH)

(c)     North-west wing

Felling dates: Summer/autumn 1651 and Summer/autumn 1652

(d)     South wing

Felling date: Winter 1654/5

(e)     North-east wing re-roofing

Felling date: Winter 1665/6

(c) Purlins 1650 (15), 1651 (16½C); Rafters 1623 (H/S), 1650 (25½C), 1651 (17½C); King strut (0/1). (d) Principal rafters 1654 (16C, 19C); Purlin 1654(28C). Site Master 1573-1654 CHAWTON4 (t=5.6 NORTH; 5.4 MASTERAL; 5.2 YORKS2) (e) Tiebeams 1665 (15C, 22C, 24C); Joist 1665 (28C); Rafter 1658 (21). Site Master 1559-1665 CHAWTON5 (t=6.3 MASTERAL; 6.1 MARLBORO; 5.7 WALES97)

(f)      South end of hall (lower floors)

Felling dates: Spring 1581, Summer 1582, Winter 1583/4

(g)     South-east (library) wing (lower floors)

Felling date: Spring 1590

(h)     North-west wing (lower floors)

Felling date ranges: after 1536, after 1551

(i)      North cross wing

Felling date ranges: After 1565, after 1569, 1557-89

(j)      Hall range (hall panelling)

Felling date ranges: 1589-1621, 1593-1625

(k)     East (rear) passage

Felling date: Winter 1654/5

(f) Joists 1580(18½C), 1581(35¼C); Transverse beam 1583(25C). (g) Transverse beam 1589(41¼C). (h) Transverse beam (0/2); Joist 1527; Floor board 1551. (i) Rafter 1476; Purlin 1547; Pack 1577(h/s); Rafters (0/2); Collar (0/1); Smoking room panels (7/8) 1441, 1534, 1538, 1540, 1552(4), 1556, 1560. (j) Principal rafter (0/1); Great hall panelling 1527, 1584(4), 1588(4); Frieze panel 1532. (k) Main landing beam (0/1); Principal rafter (1/3) 1654(16C); Stub purlin (0/1). Site Master 1289-1589 CHAWTON6 (t = 15.6 CHAWTON3; 15.2 HANTS97; 12.7 LONDON)

Chawton House, is a manor house built in several phases of construction.  The lordship of the manor was acquired by Nicholas Knight in 1578, and his son, John Knight, inherited in 1583.  The Knight family continued to occupy the house until the 1980s.  The building is mainly constructed of flint with brick dressings and comprises a central hall with cross wings at either end.  The hall retains several features that appear to be of Elizabethan date; these include the screen, the fireplace and a fire back bearing the inscription ‘I. K. 1588’.  The south wing has a good staircase in Jacobean style, while the north-west wing was considerably remodelled in the nineteenth century, retaining few early features.  Three felling dates of 1582/3 for the main hall range and north cross-wing accord well with John Knight’s inheritance of the estate in 1583, while the north-east wing encompassing the kitchens gave a felling date of 1589/90.  The south wing bears a date of 1655 carved above an internal door.  Again, this fits very well with the felling dates of winter 1654/5 from two principal rafters and a purlin.  Felling dates of 1651 and 1652 from the north-west wing suggest construction immediately before the south wing.  Finally, four felling dates of 1665/6 from the reconstructed roof over the 1589/90 north-east wing identify the last major seventeenth century phase of the house.  Dating commissioned by the Centre for the Study of Early English Women’s Writing based at Chawton. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

Sampling during the course of major restoration has expanded and enhanced the dates originally reported in VA 29, 117. The additional work shows that the hall range was built in 1583/4, a year later than reported in 1998, and that the south-east wing which includes the library was built in 1590, mirroring the north-east wing already dated to 1589/90. A corridor linking these two ranges was added in 1654/5 (roof timbers), the same date as the previously dated replacement roof to the south-east wing. This led from a new entrance hall to the kitchen and service area. The timbers from the main staircase landing above the entrance hall did not date, although the form of the staircase and scantling of the floor joists suggest a mid17th-century date. Samples from the lower floor frames of the north-west wing had no sapwood, but the two termini post quem dates of after 1536 and after 1551, together with the character of the timber, suggests that this too had late 16th-century origins and was reroofed in 1652. Panelling in the smoking room in the parlour range north of the hall produced a felling date range of 1557-89, consistent with its installation on completion of the parlour range. Panelling from the hall dated to 1589-1621 and 1593-1625, suggesting ongoing improvements to the hall after its construction.

The comprehensive and extended programme of dendrochronology at Chawton was commissioned by the house administrator, Adrian Thatcher of the Centre for the Study of Early Women’s Writing, as part of a thorough recording and interpretation related to the restoration; this project has provided unique sampling opportunities on a complex and enigmatic country house. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

CHAWTON, Home Farm Barn (SU 708 371)         

Felling date: Spring 1449

Arch brace 1415(H/S); Arcade posts 1409(H/S), 1411(H/S), 1426(16+6NM), 1433(31); Arcade plate 1448(21¼C). Site Masters 1308-1433 CHAWTON7 (t = 8.0 HANTS02; 6.0 CCTNWARN; 5.9 LONDON); 1380-1448 chw86 (t = 5.5 PLASMAWR2; 5.0 QUEEN2; 4.9 TYMAWR1)

This five-bay aisled barn is hipped at both ends and walled in brick-and-flint; it stands 40m west of Chawton House and was converted to a dwelling in the 20th century. The roof, which was unsuitable for sampling, appears to have been mainly reconstructed in the 17th century. Dating commissioned by the owner jointly with Hampshire Buildings Survey Group. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 178)

CHILBOLTON, St Michael’s Cottage (SU 392 398)

(a)     Rear wing          

Felling date: Spring 1548

(b)     Re-used joists    

Felling date: Spring 1555

(c)     Front range        

Felling dates: Summer/autumn 1634; Spring 1635

(a) Purlins 1547(26¼C2); Tiebeam 1527(h/s); Rafters (0/2); (b) 1554(28¼C, 21¼C); (c) Tiebeams 1633(47½C, 37½C), Purlin 1634(35¼C); Transverse beam 1634(29¼C); Wall plate 1634(27¼C); Axial beams 1628(17), 1625(11); Joist 1580(h/s). Site Masters 1421-1554 CHLBLTN1 (t = 11.4 HANTS02; 10.4 BRTNSTCY; 9.8 SARUM11); 1504-1634 CHLBLTN2 (t = 9.4 HANTS02; 7.8 SARUM5; 7.5 SARUMBP7)

Two bays survive of a house dated to 1548, which has straight braces and raking queen struts in the roof. One bay has sooted rafters. The house became the service wing when two more bays were added in 1635. Of this later range, the bay nearer to the service wing is heated whilst the unheated outer bay has re-used floor joists dated to 1555. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

COSHAM, Old Wymering Lane, Wymering Manor (SU 649 055)

Felling date: Spring 1581

Spine beams 1553(h/s), 1556(h/s) 1562(h/s); Principal rafters 1558(2), 1559(h/s); Post 1543(h/s); Purlin 1580(40¼C). Site Master 1451-1580 WYMERING (t = 9.4 NETTLE1; 9.0 BDLEIAN4; 8.7 GREYSCT2).

Although much disguised by later alterations and extensions, the original timber-framed manor house of 1581 was of two-and-a-half storeys on a half-H courtyard plan. It was built of very substantial timbers and exhibited the high-status feature of close studding on all elevations. Early bricks incorporated into later walling indicate that the framing was originally infilled with brick. A two-bay floored hall occupied the central part of the plan with this hall range orientated north-south, with a substantial stone and flint side stack on the rear (west) wall of the hall range. A two-bay principal chamber occupied the first floor above the hall. The location of the original stair is uncertain. Two large chimney stacks in the north and south wings appear to have been later insertions. If so, the side stack to the hall, which also provided a hearth for the principal chamber above, was the only original chimney. This suggests that there were originally additional detached service buildings. Dating commissioned by the Friends of Old Wymering in conjunction with the Hampshire Buildings Survey Group; note by Bill Fergie.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

COVE, Broomhill (SU 852 573)

a)       Main range

Felling date: 1658-1659

b)      Reused timbers

Felling date: Winter 1560/61

(a)); Principal posts (0/2); Tiebeams (1/2) 1657(21); Joist (0/1). (b) Transverse beam (re-used) 1558(13); Axial beam (re-used) 1560(30C). Site Masters (a) 1548-1657 brh1 (t=5.8 OXON; 5.5 THEVYNE3; 5.4 bct78; 4.8 LONDON; 4.7 BDLEIAN3); (b) 1392-1560 brh7 (t=6.7 HANTS97; 6.2 MASTERAL; 6.1 GROVEFM)

Broomhill is a large house of lobby-entry plan, with a three-bay parlour cross-wing.  The plan and framing suggest a seventeenth-century date, and the tiebeam in a gable wall dated to 1658-59 is integral with the other members of the cross frame and with both wall plates.  Thus, it appears that this timber dates this part of the house. An axial beam in the hall dated to 1560/61 and a transverse beam with final ring 1558 are presumably re-used, which is clearly the case for much of the timber in the house. Dating commissioned by Ashridge Homes Ltd. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

DEAN, Franklin Farmhouse (SU 570 204)

Central hall range Felling dates: Summer 1619; Winter 1619/20

Wallplate 1595(h/s+14NM); Tiebeam 1598(h/s); Purlin 1614(24); Floor beams 1600, 1615(9); Joist 1618(14½C); Post 1619(16C). Site Master 1510–1619 FRANKLN1 (t = 9.2 HANTS02, 9.1 CHLBLTN2, 8.5 WIN42HSB).

The earliest component of this large isolated farmhouse appears to be a separately-framed end bay of a Wealden house (similar to the arrangement at ‘Bayleaf’, now at Singleton where an end bay is also separately framed from the rest of the house). The surviving ‘fan’ truss of this bay suggests an early to mid-fifteenth-century date. Attached to this bay is a very long floored hall, dated here. This has a lobby-entry plan with a back-to-back chimney abutting the probable Wealden bay. A fireplace also heats the chamber above the hall and there is an original floored attic. The hall is framed in one large and one small bay, with mortice evidence for an intended division between the two, but a very long spine beam spans both bays.

The tree-ring evidence indicates that the entire frame is coeval and thus it seems to show a change of plan during a single building campaign. A cross-wing at the other end of the hall has the same queen-strut roof and small-panel framing as the hall. It is probably of a similar date but, as the roof of the hall rests on the roof of the cross-wing, the latter is likely to have been erected first.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

DEANE, Tudor Farmhouse (SU 549 503) 

(a)     Primary phase    

Felling dates: Summer 1524

(b)     Inserted hall floor           

Felling date: Summer 1531

(a) Transverse beam 1507 (19+15CNM); Tiebeam 1523 (14½C); Posts 1523 (21½C, 29½C). (b) Joist 1530 (18½C). Site Master 1374-1530 TFDEANE (t = 8.3 OVERTON2; 8.2 BEREFARM; 8.0 HANTS02).

This four-bay house, dated to1524, seems to have been built with the two central, ‘hall' bays open to the roof and yet with a partition between them at first-floor level. However, what became the upper bay has no soot on the rafters and it is hard to see what purpose such a divided hall could have served. Lodged, axial joists, dated to 1531, were placed into it, thus creating a half-floored hall, similar to that at Fardels, Micheldever (see below). The low end smoke bay was later considerably reduced in size and the lintel of a brick chimney there is dated ‘1700’. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

DOGMERSFIELD, Lords and Ladies (SU 786 529)

Felling dates: Winter 1335/6

Purlin 1335(32C); Windbraces 1335(18C, 24C) Site Master 1242-1335 LRD&LDYS (t = 8.0 HANTS02; 6.5 LONDON; 6.5 SMMRSFRM)

This is the earliest cruck house so far tree-ring dated in Hampshire (though Rockbourne, Manor Barn, of 1282-4, is the earliest cruck barn (VA 26, 63). A hall of two equal bays survives largely intact. The hall roof has evidence for a louvre in one bay. If, as seems to be usual in Hampshire, this indicates the low end, then the fragmentary end bay was the service bay. The former parlour bay is evidenced by mortices for wind braces in what is now an external wall; it is illustrated in an early-twentieth-century drawing. The hall crucks have chamfered arch-braces and collar beams. The truss at the high end is of type F1 construction and that at the low end is a variant of type F1 with a king post tenoned into the tie beam and halved over the collar. Wind braces are straight and about 4 ins square in section. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

DOGMERSFIELD, Pilcot House (SU 786 529)

Felling date: Summer 1620

Cornerpost 1619(16½C); Wall plates (0/2); Studs (0/2); Tiebeam (0/1); Purlin (0/1). Site Master 1542-1619 pil1 (t = 8.1 SENG98; 7.1 HANTS02; 7.0 OXON93)

A timber-framed, lobby-entry house with heated bays on either side of the stack. The service bay beyond the hall originally measured only c. 5 ft 3 in long yet does not appear to have served as a kitchen because there is no soot on the rafters above. This bay has now been extended to create a larger room. There is a clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof and small-panel framing with straight braces exposed to external view.  Only one of seven timbers dated due to the effects of pollarding. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 178)

DUMMER, The Nook (SU 584 458)

Felling dates: Winter 1420/21, Spring, Summer 1423, Winter 1423/4

Crucks 1419(21), 1420(21C); Collar 1422(10¼C); Purlin 1422(25½C); King post 1423(27C). Site Master 1342-1423 DUMMER1 (t = 5.4 BEREFARM; 5.2 EASTBARN; 5.0 BRUTON2)

This is a three-bay, cruck house dating to 1423/4. The single-bay hall has a well-preserved screen at the low end. The crucks are all truncated just above the collars. Some trusses are of type W, although at least one could be categorised as type F1 (Alcock 1981) having the removed ridge beam supported by a vertical strut rising from the centre of the collar beam. The roof was half-hipped at both ends. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

EAST MEON, Tudor House (SU 678 222) 

Felling date: Spring 1333

Cusped arch-brace 1332(28¼C), 1292; Tiebeam (0/1).  Site Master 1172-1332 EASTMEON (t = 10.3 HANTS97; 10.3 MASTERAL; 9.4 SOUTH)

A remarkable central truss is all that survives of an open hall.  It has a cranked tiebeam with fine cusped arch-braces beneath a steeply-cranked collar beam.  The purlins and principal rafters are secondary so that the original configuration of the truss is unclear. (Miles and Worthington 2003, VA 34, list 141)

FAREHAM, 15 High Street (SU 575 064)

Felling date range: 1279-1311

Tiebeam 1270 (H/S); Principal post 1271 (H/S); Collar; Brace to collar purlin (0/2). Site Master 1167-1271 CHIVES (t=11.5 HANTS97; 10.4 WINCATH2; 10.2 MASTERAL)

‘Chives’ is a two-bay cross wing attached to what appears to be a slightly later hall with a crown-post roof.  The central truss of the cross wing has a king post which rises to a ridge purlin.  Longitudinal braces ran from the king post to ridge.  Slightly curved under-rafters, roughly parallel to the outer principal rafters, rise from the tiebeam to the king post.  Lateral braces rise from low down on the king post, crossed the under-rafters, and pass beneath side purlins to reach the outer principal rafters.  Two samples from the cross wing indicate construction around 1300. The framing is extraordinarily similar to that of 42 Chesil Street, Winchester (felling date 1292/3; Roberts, E. with J-C. and P. Bans & Peter Smith 1996 ‘A Thirteenth-Century King-post Roof at Winchester, Hampshire’ Vernacular Architecture 27, p. 99). Both houses were built in towns with strong associations with the bishopric of Winchester. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

FARLEIGH WALLOP, Home Farm Barn (SU 623 468)

(a)     Primary phase frame of barn       

Felling dates: Winter 1574/5 and Winter 1575/6

(b)     Partial reconstruction of roof       

Felling date range: 1731-35

All timbers (10/10); (a) Tie 1529(H/S +38mm NM);  Post 1569(12+6mm NM); Aisle ties 1553, 1555, 1570(11+8mm NM), 1574(22C); Arcade posts 1558, 1575(16C); (b) Tie 1728(14+8mm NM), 1716(H/S+31mm NM). Site Masters (a) 1368-1575 FRWLLP1 (t = 9.3 HANTS02; 9.1 SKYERSFM; 9.1 CL_TOM); (b) 1640-1728 FRWLLP2 (t = 7.8 SARUM13; 6.8 SINAI; 5.4 SELBRNE2)

This is a 5-bay barn with side and hip aisles and two tiers of aligned butt-purlins. Raking braces from the tie beams meet the principal rafters just below the lower tier and a collar is placed slightly below the upper purlins. There are curved arcade braces and some curved wind braces. The truss and aisle at the SE end have been rebuilt and the posts here have square-cut jowls as opposed to the gently-swelling jowls of the primary build. At present, there is only a wagon entrance in the SW side, although mortises for horizontal timbers in the arcade posts of both sides suggest an original arrangement of opposed porches. Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 178)

FARRINGDON, Street House Farm (SU 705 349)

(a) Cross-wing Felling date: Winter 1504/5

(b) Main range Felling date range: 1512–18

(a) Purlins 1499(10), 1504(13C); Collars 1504(17C)2; Rafter 1504(14C); Principal rafter 1504(23C). (b) Tiebeam 1479; Collar 1467(h/s); Principal rafter 1492(15+20NM). Site Masters (a) 1439–1504 STRHOFM1 (t = 8.4 HANTS02, 8.3 HILLSIDE, 7.3 OVETON3) (b)1379–1492 STRHOFM2 (t = 6.8 FIELDPB, 6.2 CHAWTON3, 6.2 HANTS02).

This house comprises a cross-wing in which at least one bay was open to the roof and presumably served as a hall or kitchen (more probably the latter). Within a few years, an unusually long range of fi ve bays was added. This contains an originally unheated ground-floor chamber with two doors to what was presumably a divided service bay. Above these two bays was a two-bay chamber from which an original doorway led to three further bays whose original function is unclear. They appear to have been separated from each other by partitions, at first-floor level at least, and to have been floored. Both wings have clasped-purlin, queen-strut roofs. The wind braces and wall braces are gently curved. The spine beams are massive with correspondingly substantial ceiling joists.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

HAMBLEDON, Manor Farm (SU 646 151)

(a)     Floor joists, east wing

Felling date range: 1244-1249

Joists (1/2) 1229 (H/S+17½C NM ± 2 lost in coring).  Site Master 1151-1229  hmbl4a (t=9.9 MASTERAL; 9.3 HANTS97; 8.8 SOUTH)

(b)     East wing roof

Felling date range: 1473-1478

Wall plate 1461 (H/S); Principal rafter 1453 (2+20-25NMC). Site Master 1387-1461  HMBLDN1  (t=7.4 P5OWSEBN; 7.3 LITTLETON)

Manor Farm, Hambledon was a country residence of the bishops of Winchester during the Middle Ages.  The surviving medieval structures comprise two aligned stone-built blocks.  The larger block has three adjacent doors and is probably a low-end cross wing to a missing hall.  Its round-headed arches suggest a late 12th-century date.  The smaller block appears to be coeval.  Its floor joists have been ascribed a felling date-range of 1244-49.  On stylistic grounds this can hardly be the date of the stone block of which the floor is part.  However, the bishopric pipe rolls show that a kitchen with a floored bay was built at Hambledon in 1252/53 and it is perhaps possible that joists from the demolished kitchen eventually replaced original joists in the smaller stone block.  The roof of this block is in two bays with arch-braced collars and cusped wind braces, the latter being a very rare form in Hampshire.  This roof has been dendro-dated to 1473-76 and the bishopric pipe rolls for 1476-77 record payment to a carpenter to re-roof the outer room of the steward. Dating supported by a grant by Winchester City Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

HANNINGTON, Tan-y-bryn (SU 540 555)

Felling date: Spring 1360

Collar 1359 (51¼C); Windbrace 1359 (37¼C); Tiebeam 1359 (27¼C); Purlin 1339 H/S). Site Master 1183-1359 TANYBRYN (t=9.2 HANTS97; 8.3 OXON93; 7.8 MANORCOT)

Tan-y-Bryn is a four-bay cruck house dated to 1360, the earliest domestic cruck so far recorded in Hampshire.  It is half-hipped at both ends where there is evidence for truncated crucks that have not survived. The inner trusses have full crucks that rise to saddles.   The hall truss, which has a moulded arch brace to the collar, shows pretensions of elegance.  The curved wind braces are approximately 3 inches thick which may be an indicator of an early date.  Dating funded by Basingstoke & Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

HARTLEY WINTNEY, Witney Farm (SU 777 553), Barn 

Felling dates: Spring 1496; Winter 1497/8

Storey posts 1495(15¼C), 1497(23C); Tiebeams 1457(h/s), 1491(12). Site Master 1342-1497 WPB (t= 8.1 MC19; 7.1 gho1; 6.6 GOLEIGH1)

Until the Dissolution, this was the home farm of a small priory. The barn has seven bays with a central wagon entrance and no aisles. The roof has queen struts with clasped side purlins. The walls have square-panel framing with curved arch braces except on the road frontage, where there is a display of close studding and ogee braces. Generally, the timber is of fairly poor quality and some of the studs may have been reused. However, care was taken to establish that the roof timbers and principal posts sampled bore no signs of reuse. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)

HEADLEY, Huntingford Cottage (SU 824 387)

(a)     Main range

Felling date: Winter 1556/7

(b)     Cross wing

Felling date: Spring 1566

(a) Joist 1556(23C). (b) Principal posts 1562(23), 1565(19¼C). Site Master 1420-1565 HUNTNFRD (t = 10 HANTS97; 9.6 WNCHSTR2; 9.1 MOTISFNT)

The three-bay earlier range comprises an originally unheated bay, a floored hall bay with axial joists (one dated to 1556/7), and an end smoke bay with sooted rafters. The smoke bay seems to have contained the entrance and could be considered a precursor of the lobby-entry plan. A brick chimney was inserted within the smoke bay at an early date on the evidence of the bricks that are on average only 45mm thick. The later range of 1566 is a two-bay cross wing with a rustic solar above; the central tie beam is barely 1.22m above floor level. The cottage was formerly a farmhouse of very modest size. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

HEADLEY, Mellow Farm, Dockenfield (SU 831 389)

Felling date: Winter 1606/7

Axial beam 1606 (28C); Principal post (0/1); Tiebeam (0/1); First floor girt (0/1). Site Masters 1336-1606 mfd4 (t=7.8 HANTS97; 7.7 CHAWTON3; 6.5 SENG98)

This is a small, isolated house with 2½ bays of small-panel timber-framing built on a high ironstone plinth.  The central, half bay contains a back-to-back chimney, set to one side of the house so that the lobby entry and winding stair can be accommodated together.  It has the clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof that is typical of Hampshire at this date.  There is framed endshot, which must be an early extension.  The axial beam which was the only timber to produce a date, is integral and can be taken to reflect the date of the building, within a year or two.  The dating was commissioned by the owners, Mr and Mrs David Innes Hadfield. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

HEADLEY, Moorhouse Farm (North), Wishanger (SU 822 389)

Felling dates: Spring 1485

Intermediate collar 1484(19¼C); Purlins 1484 (20¼C), 1464 (H/S); Principal rafter (0/1).  Site Master 1313-1484 MOORHSFM (t=8.2 FORD; 8.0 ARMYNAVY; 7.8 HANTS97)

Moorhouse Farm is a large house of 4½ bays.  The 1½ -bay hall has a fine hall truss with arch-braced tie beam and with jowled queen struts.  All members of this truss, including posts and principal rafters, are chamfered.  There is a single end-bay beyond the half-bay of the hall.  Presumably, this single bay was the service bay, in which case, the parlour end comprised two, in-line bays that appear to have been partitioned into two rooms from the start.  The clasped purlin roof is typical of Hampshire at this date but the full hips at each end are more typical of Surrey, a county that is only a mile or so away.  A large seventeenth-century wing has been added at the service end.  The dating was part-funded by the owners Mr and Mrs Wilson. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

HINTON AMPNER, Black House Farm (SU 610 255)

Felling dates: Spring 1620

Purlins (2/4) 1619 (8¼C, 17¼C); Principal rafter 1619 (34¼C). Site Master 1497-1619 BLCKHSFM (t=7.4 MASTERAL; 7.4 CHAWTON3; 7.0 HANTS97)

This house has an L-shaped plan which includes a timber-framed kitchen wing with one full bay and a half bay containing a lobby entry and back-to-back chimney.  The chimney heats the kitchen and one bay of a two-bay parlour cross wing.  The parlour wing has timber-framed first and attic floors built over a ground floor composed of flint exterior walls with brick quoins and window dressings – the earliest dated example in Hampshire of this form of construction in a house of sub-manorial status.  Only the parlour wing dated but there is reason to believe that the kitchen wing is either coeval, or nearly coeval, with it.  There is no evidence that the parlour wing replaced a timber-framed end bay of the kitchen wing and the back-to-back chimney that heats both kitchen and parlour does not seem to be a secondary feature to either wing.  Both wings have small-panel framing with short, straight braces. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

HOUGHTON, Tiebridge Farm (SU 344 334), Barn            

(a)     Primary phase    

Felling dates: Winter 1558/9; Summer 1559; Winter 1559/60

(b)     Extension           

Felling dates: Winter 1591/2

(a) Posts (5/6) 1559(23C), 1558(37C, 23½C), 1556(17), 1551(20); Tie beam 1553(12; (b) Post 1591(21C). Site Master 1382-1591 HOUGHTON (t = 12.6 LONDON; 10.5 SENG98; 10.3 HANTS02)

This five-bay agricultural building of 1560 was extended by an in-line bay in 1591. A modern entrance has been made in the central bay of the phase-1 building, implying that at some stage it was used as a barn. The low eaves (wall plate only 6 ft 3 in (1.9 m) above the sole plate) suggests that it may originally have been a sheephouse or store/animal shelter. Two end bays were originally partitioned from the main body of the building. It has a queen-strut roof with clasped side purlins and a mixture of straight and slightly curved wall and wind braces. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

ITCHEN STOKE, Abbotstone Farm (SU 565 348)

Felling dates:  Spring 1561 to Winter 1561/2

Principal rafter 1561 (29C); Purlin 1560 (21½C); Collar 1560 (12¼C).  Site Master 1367-1562  ABBOTSTN (t= 11.2 CHAWTON6; 10 HANTS02; 9.1 LONDON)

Only 3½  bays survive of a mansion in which Queen Elizabeth was entertained on three occasions by its owner, William Paulet, 1st Marquis of Winchester. The roof has two tiers of aligned butt purlins and each truss has three queen struts rising to a collar. The framing is massive and the wall braces are curved. The house has been cased in brick in the 18th century.  Dating commissioned by the owner jointly with Hampshire Buildings Survey Group. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 178)

KIMPTON, The Manor (SU 282 467)

(a)     Main range (primary phase)

Felling date: Winter 1444/5

Tiebeam 1440(12+4C NM); Collars (3/4) 1426(h/s), 1430(h/s, 2); Studs 1444(15C, 18C, 22C); Crown post (0/1); Rafter (0/1). Site Master 1350-1444 KIMPTON1 (t = 8.3 SOUTH; 8.1 LONDON; 7.4 HIGHTOWN)

(b)     Insertion of close studding

Felling date: Winter 1534/5

(c)     Refenestration of front

Felling date: Spring 1560

(b) Studs 1534(9C, 12C). (c) Reset mullion 1483; Reset head 1495; Reset transom 1559(33¼C). Site Master 1417-1559 KIMPTON2 (t = 9.1 SENG98; 7.9 OVERTON3; 7.7 MASTERAL)

(d)     Internal partition and refronting

Felling date: Spring 1725

Stud 1724(21¼C). Site Master 1667-1724 kim16 (t = 6.1 MDM13; 5.9 MASTERAL)

This range with a crown-post roof is a surviving wing of a large, medieval house. The basic frame, dated to 1444/5, consists of a long jettied range with an entrance and staircase bay giving access to two large chambers on each floor. All four chambers are heated, two have inner rooms and two first-floor chambers are served by garderobes. It is probable that at least one chimney and adjacent garderobe are original features but others were installed or replaced during 16th-century refurbishment. In 1534/5 close studs were inserted into the small-panel framing at ground-floor level and this may have been when the original framing was replaced by an extraordinary brick gable end, decorated with a chequerboard pattern. In 1560, glazed oriel windows were inserted in both storeys. Further modernisation of the house took place in the 18th century, and the 1725 date for a stud may relate to the introduction of Georgian windows.

Until 1861, this was the rectory of Kimpton (Hampshire Record Office 21M65/F7/132-2 and 80M71/PB2). The advowson of the church of Kimpton descended with the lordship of the manor from the 14th century to 1886 (VCH, Hants 4, 376). Consequently, the erection of a new rectory would have been of considerable interest to John Lisle, lord of the manor in 1445 (ibid., 373, 388); he was associated with the Duke of Somerset, a member of the Beaufort family (Doubleday et al., The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, etc., extinct or dormant, Gloucester, 8 (1982), 40). The unusual crown-post roof of this building is almost identical to two others erected for Cardinal Beaufort at Bishops Waltham and St Cross, Winchester, suggesting that the same master carpenter was employed on all three projects. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

KIMPTON, Littleton Manor (SU 290 467), X-Y wing

Felling date: Spring 1578

Principal post 1577(39¼C); Transverse beam 1500. Site Master 1409-1577 ltm4 (t = 6.8 OVERTON3; 6.5 HILLSIDE; 6.5 BURROWFM)

This is a large multi-period farmhouse set within a small sub-manor in the parish of Kimpton. The abbot of Gloucester held half a knight’s fee here in 1280 until the Dissolution. Soon after 1545, it was transferred to Sir John St John of Lydiard Tregoze. His son, William, inherited in 1576 (VCH, Hants 4, 373-4). A typologically earlier range may have been built in the mid 16th century, but only three samples appeared suitable and they failed to date. An adjoining timber-framed range to the east with a clasped-purlin roof has been dated to 1578. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

KINGS SOMBORNE, Parsonage Farm (SU 361 311), Barn

(a)     Primary phase    

Felling date range: 1527-30

(b)     Possible conversion to barn        

Felling dates: Winter 1759/60; Spring 1762

(a) Principal rafter 1506(H/S); Post 1526(8+ 1-4C NM); (b) Door-posts 1759(24C), 1761(31¼C). Site Masters: 1408-1526 PARSNFB1 (t = 7.59 KNGSMBRN; 7.56 MOTISFNT; 7.45 STOLAFS); 1684-1761 PARSNFB2 (t = 9.8 ORIEL1; 9.4 HANTS02; 7.5 FARLEGH2)

This five-bay agricultural building of 1527-30 is gabled at both ends. Its roof has queen-strut trusses and is the most easterly example of trenched purlins known in Hampshire. An end bay was originally partitioned off. Joints in the principal posts for transverse floor beams suggest that the building was not originally a barn. The insertion of full-height door-posts in 1762 and the removal of the floor probably relate to conversion to barn use. Further bays were added, probably in the late eighteenth century. The whole range has now been converted to housing. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

KINGS  SOMBORNE, Manor Farm (SU 367 314)

(a)     Fragment of earlier range

Felling date: Spring 1301

Door jambs(1/2) 1300 (44¼C). Site Master 1162-1300 ksm9 (t=7.8 SIDDNGTN; 6.2 STOKE2; 5.9 THEBOLD1)

(b)     West and centre ranges

Felling date: Spring 1504

Rafters (2/3) 1503 (14¼C, 25¼C); Collar 1503 (22¼C); Tiebeam 1503 (31¼C); Queen strut 1455 (10+48¼C NM); ‘Arcade’ plate (0/1). Site Master 1273-1503 KNGSMBRN (t=9.9 ast56; 9.5 SOUTH; 9.0 HANTS97)

Manor Farm, King’s Somborne contains a cross frame (dated to 1301) from the low end of a hall.  It has two adjacent doors with two-centred arches.  The rest of the house comprises two parallel wings, each of four bays.  These wings have been dendro-dated to 1504, a date precisely confirmed by building accounts in the archives of Magdalen College, Oxford, the institution responsible for the building.   The finer of the wings contains a three-bay great chamber with access to a one-bay room.  This room has a small, original outshot that may have functioned as a latrine. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

KINGS WORTHY, Old Farm Cottages, Abbots Worthy (SU 497 326)    

Felling dates: Spring 1607 to Spring 1610

Rafters 1606 (19¼C), 1608(16½C), 1609(12C); Purlins 1609 (17C, 23C); Wall plate 1605 (19); Lean-to tiebeam 1603 (22); Joists (4/5) 1591 (H/S), 1595 (10), 1609 (18C, 23¼C).  Site Master 1485-1609 KNGWRTHY (t= 12.5 HANTS02; 10.3 CHAWTON; 9.5 GREYSCT2)

A timber-framed house with a most unusual plan-form in regional terms, at least. The three bays of the main body of the house comprise a parlour and hall, which was heated by an end smoke bay that was almost 12 feet in length. This appears to have been the intended form of the house and two small jettied and gabled wings to the rear apparently represent a late change of plan, even though their timbers were also felled in 1610. The hall has ovolo-moulded panelling at the high end. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

KINGSCLERE, Newbury Road, Falcons (SU 5249 5873)

(a)     Jettied main range           

Felling dates: Spring 1481; Spring 1482

(b)     Cross-wing        

Felling date range: 1445-1477

(a) Post 1481(25¼C) Post 1480(30¼C); (b) Post 1436 (H/S) Site Masters  1364-1481 FALCONS (t = 6.62 OVERTON3; 6.36 OVERTON7, 5.79 WHEELER; (b) 1366-1436 fkch11 (t = 7.20 SWANINN; 6.78 GASKYNS1; 6.22 PICKETTS)

Originally an impressively large house in the centre of the village, close to the parish church, Falcons was acquired by Winchester College in the early sixteenth century and became an inn, The Golden Falcon, in the seventeenth. The complex comprises five separate timber framed structures, of which two – a cross wing and hall range – have been dated. A jettied hall range contains a divided service bay and a two-bay hall. This was floored from the start and is an early example of the open hall being superseded. Only one timber, a post, was considered suitable for sampling in the two-bay cross wing. Both dated ranges have roofs of the queen-strut type. Building description by Bill Fergie. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

KINGSCLERE, The Swan Hotel (SU 524 585)

Felling dates: Summer 1448; Winter 1448/9

Transverse beam 1448 (16C); Principal rafters 1447 (24½C); 1428 (H/S); Tiebeam 1447 (10½C); Corner post (0/1); Collar (0/1); Strut (0/1). Site Master 1363-1447 SWANINN (t=5.9 GOLEIGH1; 5.3 EASTMID; 4.9 MC19)

The Swan Hotel, Kingsclere, stands parallel to Swan Street in a former market town.  The surviving timber-framed structure comprises a fine two-bay hall with elements of a cross wing, which are both ascribed a felling date of 1448/9.  The hall has two tiers of chamfered butt purlins, fully wind braced. The hall truss is of jointed-cruck construction with moulded inner faces and a worn, shield boss beneath the collar.  The quality of construction and the large size of the hall (28 feet high, 27 feet wide and 19 feet long) suggest that it was part of a superior building.   In 1533 it was called ‘The Swan Inn’ and belonged to Winchester College (S. Himsworth Winchester College Muniments ii 560-2).  Given that Winchester College built several large inns in Hampshire in the 15th century, it is quite possible that The Swan was also built by the College.  Unfortunately, a search of College archives has so far failed to produce documentary evidence to support this suggestion. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

KINGSCLERE, Sydmonton Court (SU 486 579)

(a)     Primary phase    

Average felling date range: 1545-65

(b)     Repair phases    

Felling dates: Winter 1722/3 and Summer 1730

(a) Principal rafters (4/5) 1519 (1), 1520 (H/S), 1521 (H/S+14½C NM), 1534 (4+11NM); Strut 1529 (H/S). Site Master 1383-1529 SYDMNTN1 (t = 8.3 OVERTON2; 8.2 BEREFARM; 8.0 HANTS02). (b) Replacement purlins 1722(13C), 1729 (12½C). Site Master 1667-1729 SYDMNTN2 (t = 7.7 kim16; 6.6 HANTS02; 6.1 SENG98).

The large estate on which this house stands was appropriated from Romsey Abbey and granted to Sir John Kingsmill in 1540. Sir John was a member of a local gentry family and a staunch Protestant. It was either Sir John, who died in 1556, or his son Sir William Kingsmill who built the large E-plan mansion. [DNB vol. 31, 716] The much-altered mansion is constructed partly in brick and partly in stone rubble. The original roof is largely intact and has two tiers of butt purlins and v-braces above the collars.  The eighteenth century purlins relate to major repairs to the roof whilst keeping true to its original form. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

LISS, Lyss Place (SU 764 283)

(a)     Main roof and reset floor

Felling dates: Spring 1541, Winter 1541/2, Spring 1542

(b)     Reused tiebeams in barn

Felling date range: 1530-62

(a) Purlins 1513 (h/s), 1540(26¼C, 30¼C); Reset ceiling joist 1541(26C); Principal rafters 1540(11), 1541(9C, 10C, 11¼C, 14C). (b) Reused tiebeams 1521(2), 1522(h/s). Site Master 1348-1541 LYSSPLAC (t = 9.6 HANTS97; 8.8 TREES2; 8.7 REF3)

This was a country house of the abbess of St Mary’s, Winchester. Part of a stone range survives, retaining some features (in particular a cinquefoil, cusped, window head) that suggest a 14th or early 15th-century date (Rodney Hubbuck, pers. comm.). If so, the roof of 1542 must be a replacement. It is unclear who acquired the property following the Dissolution (VCH, Hants 4, 84-5). The building presently extends to four bays, but empty mortices in the roof imply at least one additional bay. The roof has two tiers of butt purlins, the upper tier being fully wind braced. Each truss is composed of plain, arch-braced collars (HRO: 61A02).

The barn on the opposite side of the courtyard was also sampled. Although typologically of early 19th-century date, four tiebeams were reused transverse beams cut in half. Two of these produced mid 16th-century felling date ranges and thus most likely originated from the main house. The joist mortices measured 6½in wide by 6in deep. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

LITTLETON, Monk’s Rest (SU 455 329)

Felling date: Winter 1500/1501

Purlins (1/2) 1500 (20C); Moulded dais beam 1481 (2); Principal post (0/1); Rafters (0/2). Site Master 1392-1500 MNKSREST (t=6.5 BEREFARM; 6.2 KENT88; 5.6 HANTS97)

Monk’s Rest, Littleton is a small rectory dated to 1500/1501.  It appears to have contained only three bays, including a central, one-bay hall and a heated parlour.  It is illustrated and discussed in Lewis, E., et al. Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area (1988) Winchester.  Dating part-commissioned by Mr I Rushbrook and the Littleton Local History Society. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

LITTLETON, St. Catherine’s Church (SU 454 329)

Averaged felling date ranges: 1390-1412

Tiebeams 1381 (H/S); 1361 (H/S); Inner wallplates; Crown post (0/3). Site Master 1298-1381 ltnc1 (t=6.2 37BSBOAT; 5.9 MASTERAL; 5.9 SENGLAND)

St Catherine’s Church, is a small parish church, mainly flint-walled.  Apparently first built in the twelfth century, it was much remodelled in the last century.  The nave has a two-bay crown-post roof , plain except for the chamfers on the crown posts and four-way arch braces.  The felling date ranges for the two tiebeams suggest construction around 1400, making it the latest of the eight crown-post roofs dated within the county.  It is the first parish church in Hampshire to be dendro-dated. Dating commissioned by Philip Lloyd for the Littleton Local History Group. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

LONG SUTTON, Summers Farm (SU 752 471), Barn

Felling dates: Spring, Summer 1441

Collars 1420(18), 1440(40¼C); Crucks (3/4) 1416(h/s), 1429(20), 1440(31½C); Wall plate 1417(2); Purlin (0/1). Site Master 1270-1440 SMMRSFRM (t = 11.0 MASTERAL; 10.1 HANTS97; 9.8 LONDON)

In this five-bay cruck barn, dated to 1441, the crucks are partly of type W (truncated above the collar), and partly of a hybrid type which has the cruck blades slightly extended, reaching a saddle. However, the saddle lacks a peg hole for a strut to support a ridge beam, as in type F1, and there is no other evidence for a ridge beam. The roof was half-hipped and remnants survive of the vertical planking that clad the exterior. The porch is later and there is no evidence for an original one. Opposing the waggon entrance is a winnowing door. An end bay was formerly partitioned from the rest of the barn and may have served as stables. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

LOWER FROYLE, 2 Park Lane (SU 763 440)       

Felling date: Winter 1506/7

All timbers (7/9). Joist 1483(h/s); Tiebeams 1484(h/s)2, 1494(10); Purlin 1490(5+11NM); Posts 1484(1), 1506(31C). Site Master 1386-1506 LFROYLE (t = 7.3 KITCHEN; 7.2 HANTS02; 7.1 WCCLOSE3)

The two-bay two-storey timber-framed structure may have a third bay within the next door property. Externally there is little indication of the age of the building, but the frame is readily apparent inside. The jowled posts have wide curved braces to the wall plates. One tiebeam has mortices to take diminished haunch soffit tenons which relates to an inserted attic floor (not suitable for sampling). Dating commissioned by the owners. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

MAPLEDURWELL, Rye Cottage (SU 684 516)

(a)     Main cruck range

Felling dates: Summer 1486, Winter 1486/7, Summer 1487

Cruck blades 1485 (25¼C); 1486 (17C, 24C, 30C); Floor joists 1486 (54C, 57½C). Site Master 1317-1486 RYECOTT1 (t=10.2 HANTS97; 10.0 KENT88; 9.0 SENG98)

(b)     Box-frame extension

Felling date: Winter 1525/6

Collar 1525 (27C). Site Master 1377-1525 rye7(t=7.8 SENG98; 7.7 HANTS97; 7.3 BRAMLEY)

Rye Cottage, Mapledurwell is a three-bay cruck house, dendro-dated to 1487, the latest cruck building so far dated in Hampshire.  It is half-hipped at both ends and all the crucks are truncated (W-apex). The upper end bay retains original floor joists laid longitudinally with a trimmer for a ladder stair.  Beyond is a one-bay extension in the same alignment that has been dated to 1525/6.  This is of the same height and width as the earlier cruck house and yet is of box-framed construction. Dating part-commissioned by Mrs L Cuthill and Basingstoke & Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

MICHELDEVER, Fardels (SU 517 391)    

Felling dates:  Spring 1570 and Spring 1572

Tiebeams 1538 (H/S), 1569 (31¼C, 32¼C); Post 1569 (20¼C); Wall-plate 1571 (36¼C); Axial beam 1571 (27¼C).  Site Master 1389-1571 FARDELSX (t= 10.1 HANTS02; 8.8 wlrs5; 8.7 SENG98)

A well-preserved house of four bays with a ‘half-floored hall’: that is a floored-over hall of one bay that was heated by a smoke bay, in this case of the same size as the hall, except for the baffle entry.  The dendro date of 1572 is important as few houses from the second half of the 16th century have been identified in the county. Showy, curved braces were reserved for the road elevation with straight braces in internal walls. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

MICHELMERSH, Manor Farm (SU 353 265), South range

Felling date: Winter 1321/2

Inner compass timbers 1268, 1287(h/s), 1295(h/s); Ashlar 1290(h/s); Soulace 1321(33C). Site Master 1155-1321 MCHLMRSH (t = 10.3 HANTS97; 9.5 WINCATH2; 9.0 LONDON)

This range is the stone-built chamber block of a country residence of the prior of St Swithun’s, Winchester. On the first floor is a large solar, whose barrel vault retains nails for a lath-and-plaster ceiling, and a small inner room that may have been a garderobe. The ground floor has a large chamber whose window reveals have remnants of scrolled red paintwork. The date of 1321/2 may relate to entries in priory account rolls recording the fetching of stone from Westwood near Bath between 1324 and 1326 (E. Roberts, ‘A prior’s mansion at Michelmersh’, Proc. Hampshire Fld Club, 48 (1993), 107-20, p.117), which would indicate a degree of stockpiling. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

MONK SHERBORNE, Pamber, Priory Farm (SU 609 582)

Felling dates:  Summer 1561

Queen strut 1560 (32½C); Purlins 1560 (16½C, 17½C, 21½C); Rafters 1560 (16½C, 33½C); Inserted queen post 1560 (25½C).  Site Master 1423-1560 PRIORYFH (t= 9.2 BOBROOF; 8.1 SHAW1; 8.1 BRAMLEY)

This large farmhouse, until recently the property of Queen’s College, Oxford, is the latest dated example in Hampshire of the hearth-passage plan. Only the service and hall bays survive. Above the hall is a fine two-bay chamber, somewhat marred by the chimney stack.  An attic floor has not been dated, although an inserted queen strut produced precisely the same date as the primary phase timbers. It has straight braces throughout. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

MONK SHERBORNE, Pamber, Priory Farm Barn (SU 609 582)

(a)     Primary Phase    

Felling date: Spring 1508

(b)     Southern extension         

Felling date: Spring 1591

(a) Rail 1507(13¼C); Studs 1507(25¼C), 1506(38), 1485(h/s). (b) Rail 1590(26¼C); Corner post 1590(20¼C); Wall plate 1590(28¼C). Site Masters 1370-1590 PRIORYFB (t = 8.4 HANTS02; 8.3 PRIORYFH; 8.1 BRAMLEY); 1413-1485 pfh14 (t = 7.2 WHANNEY; 5.8 MDMH11X; 5.7 BURCLERE2; 5.3 PRIORYFH); 1462-1507 pfh15 (t = 6.2 GROVEFM; 6.1 ROMSEY; 5.7 PRIORYFH; 5.2 SHAW1)

This seven bay barn and a small staddle-stone granary, are the surviving historic buildings of the agricultural complex which once served the nearby Priory Farm, dated to 1561 (VA 36, 97). The barn is aligned N-S. The original northern five bays were extended by two bays in 1591; unusually, the two extension bays have very different dimensions from the original ones, approximately 16.5 and 10 ft (5 and 3 m) in length, compared to 15 ft (4.5 m) for the bays of the earlier section.

The roof construction of the earlier section has queen struts with single purlins clasped between principal rafter and collar. The structure is fully braced with curved braces and appears to have been fully gabled. It has a large central wagon entrance to the west, but the opposing opening appears to have been smaller, perhaps no more than a winnowing door. The roof in the extension has raking queen posts, with the struts directly supporting the purlins without collars. The braces are straight, and the walls appear to have been weather boarded. The southern gable is half hipped. Dating commissioned by the owner and the Hampshire Buildings Survey Group; building description by Bill Fergie. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

MOTTISFONT, Abbey Farm Cottages (SU 325 269)

(a) Primary phase                      Felling dates: Spring 1473

(b) Upstairs fireplace                 Felling date range: 1461-1493

(c) Flooring over of hall             Felling dates: Winter 1578/9

a) Rafters (3/4) 1472(17¼C), 1442, 1403; Hammer brace (0/1); Arch brace (0/1); Studs (0/2); Principal post (0/1); Rail (0/1); (b) Mantel beam 1452(H/S); (c) Floor joists 1578(24C, 11C). Site Masters 1303-1578 ABBEYFMM (t = 8.8 LONDON; 8.7 HANTS02; 8.6 COBHSQ01; 7.5 MOTISFNT); 1483-1578 afm11 (t = 5.7

A Wealden house of which the two-bay hall and single parlour bay survive. The hall has a false hammer-beam truss: a rare combination with the Wealden form. Parts of a large hall window remain, and the fireplace in the chamber over the parlour appears to be part of the primary phase of building. The insertion of a hall floor in 1578/9 created a continuous jetty along the street frontage; now obscured by a later brick re-fronting. The insertion of a chimney at the low end of the hall, which created a hearth-passage plan, probably occurred at the same time. The quality of the house is superior to most contemporary rural houses in Hampshire at this period and it is possible that it was the work of Mottisfont Priory. Dating commissioned by Gary Marshall on behalf of the National Trust. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

MOTTISFONT, Dairy Cottage (SU 324 268) 

(a)           East range          

Felling date range: 1318-50

Tiebeam 1304+5(h/s); Rafters 1250, 1256; Corner posts (0/2).  Site Master 1228-1304 DAIRYCT1 (t = 7.3 WINCATH2; 6.9 PILGRIMS; 5.8 HANTS02)

(b)          West range        

Felling dates: Winter 1499/1500

Axial beam 1499(25C); Joists 1499(26C), 1453.  Site Master 1351-1499 DAIRYCT2 (t = 6.7 KNGSMBRN; 5.8 HERE14C; 6.6 HANTS02 )

The earlier of the two main phases is a jettied two-bay range at right angles to the road dating to 1318-50, to which a wider and longer bay was added at the rear in 1500.  The first range has a cranked central tiebeam, originally with arch-braces and a crown post (removed). Most of the original rafters are re-used in the reconstructed roof. The wall framing consists of large panels with both straight and slightly curved braces. Dating commissioned by the National Trust. (Miles and Worthington 2003, VA 34, list 141)

NETLEY MARSH, Winsor Manor Barn (SU 317 138)

Felling date: Winter 1636/7

Posts 1617(2), 1635(18+1NM), 1636(18C), 1636(25C). Site Master 1550–1636 NETLEY1 (t = 7.0 GOODYERS, 6.8 HANTS02, 6.5 NDS_TWO).

The barn is a five-bay timber-framed building with its long axis lying approximately east–west. The main truss tiebeams have straight braces from the wall posts and raking struts from the tiebeams clasp the purlins to the principal rafters. Mortices in the outer faces of the principal posts demonstrate that the barn was originally aisled. This is one of the few buildings within the New Forest to be dated.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

NETHER WALLOP, Berry Court Farm (SU 301 356) Barn          

Felling dates: Winter 1579/80; Spring 1580

Aisle ties 1579(15¼C2, 21C, 27¼C2), 1563(1+16C NM); Aisle principal rafter 1579(29¼C); Arcade post 1572(6+12C NM); Aisle post 1579(21C). Site Master 1429-1579 BRRYCTFM (t = 10.6 HANTS97; 10.4 MASTERAL; 10.2 LONDON)

An aisled barn of five full bays with hip aisles at both ends. The outer walls are of knapped flint with fine ashlar dressings. The roof, which is fully wind-braced, has two tiers of aligned butt purlins and queen struts to the collars.  The braces are either straight or very slightly curved, confirming this as a period of transition in this respect, in Hampshire at least. Many of the timber elements are plank-like, the wall-plates being nearly two feet in width; the mitre joints at the external corners have hidden stopped tenons.  The one waggon porch faces the former farmyard.  The door-posts are also plank-like, measuring 6 in by 24 in. The surviving original doors have 6 in by 24 in hanging stiles (Henry Russell, ‘Barn Doors’, Mortice and Tenon, 11 (2001)). The expensive timber-work is probably unique in Hampshire and marks this out as a building that was meant to be seen and admired. (Miles and Worthington 2003, VA 34, list 141)

NORTH WALTHAM, Batchelors (SU 564 463)

(a)     Primary phase

Felling dates: Spring, Summer 1499

Rafters 1498(14¼C, 20½C); Principal rafter 1481(h/s); Jetty bressumer 1486(5+7NM); Joists 1478(h/s), 1498(16¼C); Jetty dais beam (0/1). Site Master 1389-1498 BATCHLRS (t = 8.3 HANTS97; 7.5 STRETEFM; 7.1 BRAMLEY)

(b)     Inserted joist

Felling date: Spring 1574

Joist 1573(29¼C). Site Master 1486-1573 nwb8 (t = 6.4 KIMPTON2; 5.6 OVERTON3; 5.0 EXTON)

This hall house, dated to 1499, is now of three bays; it is half-hipped at the parlour end but the roof of the service bay shows evidence for a further bay which may have served as a smoke bay for an open-hearth kitchen. The single-bay hall has an internal jetty at the high end. Evidence for the original door suggests that the cross passage was in the service bay. The roof has the queen-strut, clasped-purlin trusses that were standard form for most of Hampshire at this date. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

NORTH WARNBOROUGH, Castle Bridge Cottages (SU 722 520)

(a)     North range

Felling dates: Spring 1476; Summer 1476; Winter 1477/8

Collar 1477 (25C); Transverse beam     1475 (21½C); Principal post 1475 (21¼C); Axial beam (0/1). Site Master 1347-1532 CSTLBRDG (t=7.4 MC19; 6.9 MOTISFNT; 6.7 CHAWTON2)

(b)     South range

Felling dates: Winter 1529/30; Winter 1532/3; Winter 1534/5

Rafters 1534 (23C); 1532 (27C); Principal rafter 1532 (25C); Ceiling joist 1529 (33C); Purlin 1480 (17); Wall plate (0/1)

          Castle Bridge Cottages, North Warnborough, are two aligned rows dated 1476 and 1534/5. See Individual Case Studies (Roberts and Miles 1997, VA 28, 117-8). (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

NORTH WARNBOROUGH, Cruck Cottage (SU 718 513)

Felling dates: Spring 1382; Summer 1382; Winter 1383/4

Cruck blades 1383 (18C); 1381 (20½C); Collar 1381 (20¼C); Rafter (0/1).  Site Master 1240-1383 CCTNWARN (t=6.8 SHERFLD; 6.4 TLT19; 5.8 LODGEFM)

Cruck Cottage, North Warnborough, is a three-bay cruck house dated to 1383/4.  It is half-hipped at each end and the central crucks have a type C apex in which the ridge beam rests on a saddle which, in turn, rests on full crucks.  The roof is fully wind-braced with fairly straight braces, almost square in section.  The original framing appears to have been in large panels. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

NORTH WARNBOROUGH, Oakholme/Shepherds Cottage (SU 730 515)

Felling dates: Summer/autumn 1400 - Summer/autumn 1402

Tiebeam 1399(19½C); Wall plate 1401(23½C); Rafters (4/5) 1401(14¼C, 16C, 17C), 1400(22¼C).  Site Master 1300-1401 OAKHOLME (t=8.6 MAGDALN1; 7.9 ODIHAMOV; 7.4 OXON93)

Three bays survive of a probable four-bay house of 1402.  The service bay has probably been lost and the parlour bay is only fragmentary, but the upper-end truss of the hall retains evidence of a hall bench and a draught spere.  The two-bay hall has a clasped-purlin roof and the hall truss has arch braces to both collar and tie beams.  Dating was part-funded by Mrs M Risden, Mrs A Stanley and the Odiham Society. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

NORTH WARNBOROUGH, Strete Farm (SU 722 521)

(a)     Cross wing

Felling dates: Spring 1447, Spring 1448

(b)     Main range

Felling date: Winter 1505/6

(a) Stud 1446(20¼C); Rafters 1447(21¼C, 22¼C); Brace (0/1). (b) Rafter 1468(h/s); Timber reused as door post 1505(32C). Site Master 1332-1505 STRETEFM (t = 10.0 HANTS97; 9.3 FORD; 8.0 LONDON)

The earliest part of this house is a two-bay cross wing dated to 1448. The undivided lower room has restricted headroom and may have been a storage or service area. The two-bay solar above is crossed by a graceful, arch-braced tiebeam which supports a crown-strut truss. The solar is jettied over the street and at the rear, and has a blocked doorway to a removed inner chamber. It was probably a cross wing to an open hall, which was replaced by a fine, jettied range floored with large, chamfered joists dated to 1505/6. This is an early date for the replacement of an open hall and suggests that the house was of some status. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

NORTH WARNBOROUGH, Thatched Cottage (SU 731 519)

Felling dates: Winter 1444/5; Winter 1445/6

Wind brace 1445 (30C); Purlins 1444 (19C); 1427 (H/S); Principal rafter (0/1). Site Master 1347-1444 tcnw12 (t=7.3 37BSBOAT; 6.5 WC KITCH; 6.3 ast56)

Thatched Cottage, North Warnborough, is a three-bay boxed-framed house dating to 1445/6.  It has a clasped purlin roof and is fully wind-braced.  It stands only 18 feet 6 inches high at the ridge and covers only 630 square feet.  It is fairly typical of a class of small, late-medieval peasant houses which survives in Hampshire.  (cf. Garden Cottage, West Meon - below).  The hall was not partitioned from the service bay below tie beam level but a screen, set about 3 feet 3 inches within the service bay, seems to have performed this function.  This screen extends upwards to the roof apex and is sooted where it faces the hall.  The screen is not related to principal rafters or posts but, never-the-less, seems to mark the end of the original open hall. See Individual Case Studies (Roberts 1997, VA 28, 119) (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

ODIHAM, No. 6, Farnham Road (SU 745 512)

(a)     Primary phase    

Average felling date range: 1317-36

(b)     Reconstruction of front bay         

Average felling date range: 1409-31

(a) Posts 1256, 1300 (5+6NM), 1303 (8+13NM); Tiebeam (0/1); Transverse beam (0/1). Site Master 1159-1303 ODIHAMFR (t = 7.8 HANTS02; 7.4 MASTERAL; 7.3 SOUTH).   (b) Joists 1288 (+110NM to H/S), 1339 (+60NM to H/S), 1352 (+50NM to H/S). Site Master 1177-1352 fod123 (t = 5.9 WBRADLEY; 5.9 TUDRTVRN; 5.4 WINCATH2).

This two-bay cross wing stands at right angles to a road on the edge of this small town. Features, such as the dragon ties and large braces of almost square section, pointing to an early building are confirmed by the dendro-date. The original joists in the rear bay were lodged transversely over the mid rails and this arrangement appears to have originally obtained in the front bay. However, new joists, aligned axially, were dated to 1409-31. The reason for this re-alignment is unclear but could be connected with a desire to create a jetty at the road frontage. The hall range could be of early or mid-15th-century date from its typology. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

ODIHAM, Gainsborough House, 69 High Street (SU 741 511)

Felling dates: Winter 1476/7

Queen struts 1476(20C); Principal rafters (0/2); Rafters (0/1). Site Master 1370-1476 gho1 (t=6.2 MC19; 5.7 GEORGE; 5.4 VINECOTT)

This three-bay range dated to 1476/7 stands parallel to the High Street.  It is part of a large courtyard building and is flanked on one side by a cross wing while on the other side it fronts a rear range (which is No. 1 King Street, tree-ring dated to 1446/7, VA 27, p. 98.).  The range comprises a corner bay jettied on two sides adjoining two further bays that contain large rooms on both floors.  All the posts and transverse beams bear fine and elaborate mouldings (by Hampshire standards at any rate).  A small area of ground floor ceiling of V-edged boarding with applied mouldings survives above a cellar staircase.  This would have formed part of an original decorative scheme to the ground floor.  Dating part-funded by the Odiham Society. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

ODIHAM, Ivied Cottage, High Street, cross-wing (SU 742 512)

Felling dates: Winter 1453/4 and Winter 1454/5

Wall plate 1453(19C); Tiebeam 1454(27C); King strut 1422(3).  Site Master 1386-1454  IVIEDCOT (t=7.0 FIELDPB; 6.2 SHERNAVE; 6.0 SENG98)

This three-bay cross wing to a missing hall has been dated to 1454/5.  At first-floor level it comprises a two-bay solar fronting the street and a single-bay chamber at the rear.  The roof is of clasped purlin form, typical of fifteenth-century Hampshire.  The central truss of the solar has a crown strut and small brackets to support the tie beam.  The work was part-funded by The Odiham Society. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108) 

ODIHAM, The Old Vicarage (SU 739 510)

Felling dates: Winter 1393/4 and Winter 1395/6

Joists 1395(19C, 22C, 25C), 1393(17C); Principal posts (1/2) 1395(26C); Upper brace to corner post 1395(16C); Stave 1395(26C). Site Master 1295-1395 ODIHAMOV (t=8.3 LONDON; 7.9 OAKHOLME; 7.8 TLT19)

This house was the medieval vicarage of Odiham.  Although the rector would have taken the bulk of the tithes, the ample size of the vicarage attests the more than adequate means of the vicar.  The medieval structure comprises a hall with flanking cross wings.  The timbers of the hall and upper-end wing were unsuitable for sampling.  Typologically, however, they are of 15th-century date.  The lower-end cross wing is of two bays and has a simple, crown-post roof.  It was sampled and dated to 1395/6.  This is within the 14th-century date-range of all Hampshire’s domestic crown-post roofs that have been sampled by dendrochronology.  Dating part-funded Mr C Froelich and the Odiham Society. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

ODIHAM, Poland Farm (SU 745 526)

Felling date: Summer 1607

Mid-rail 1595(h/s); Post 1596(7); Stud 1606(15½C). Site Master 1489–1606 POLANDF1 (t = 7.9 PSBROOK1, 6.5 HMPTNCT2, 6.3 FAWSLEY1).

The two-storeyed house consists of three bays, the two west-most of which are primary, containing a parlour and a hall heated by a brick chimney; the east bay is later. The roof is of queen-strut, clasped-purlin construction. The outbuilding to the north of the house also has a queen strut roof, but its timbers failed to date.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

ODIHAM, The Priory (SU 737 510)

Felling dates: Winter 1448/9

Arch-braces 1448(28C, 23C); Principal rafter 1448(25C). Site Master 1207-1448 ODIHMPRY (t=12.3 MASTERAL; 12.1 HANTS97; 11.6 OXON93)

This large building with several wings was, until the last century, the rectory of the parish of Odiham. In the Middle Ages, the rectory belonged to the Chancellors of Salisbury Cathedral who probably used it as a staging post on their journeys to and from London.    A large, stone-built wing previously described as a ‘hall’ (Meirion-Jones, 1972, ‘A fifteenth-century stone hall at Odiham, Hampshire’ Archaeological J. LXXVIII, 166-173), is now considered to be a chamber block (pers. Comm.G. Meirion-Jones)  The roof, dated to 1448/9, is of butt-purlin construction; it has been partly demolished, but six bays survive with four open and three closed trusses.   The open trusses have arch-braced collars with queen-strut trusses at the partitions.  Dating part-funded by the Odiham Society. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

ODIHAM, Wheelers (SU 754 507)

(a)     Primary phase

Felling dates: Spring, Summer 1499

Tiebeam 1492(24¼C); Wall plate 1474(h/s); Transverse beam 1474(h/s); Principal rafter (0/1). Site Master 1384-1492 WHEELERS (t = 8.8 HANTS97; 7.4 MASTERAL; 7.0 MAYTREE)

(b)     Rear extension

Felling date: Spring 1599

Longitudinal beam 1598(25¼C). Site Master 1513-1598 wlrs5 (t = 7.0 MASTERAL; 7.0 ASHLEY3; 6.4 OVERTON5)

This large farmhouse of five in-line bays stands in open country about 1km south-east of the town. It dates to 1499 has a two-bay parlour with solar above and a single-bay hall crossed by a gallery. Mortices in the tiebeams at either end of the hall could have held a beam supporting a partition to screen the gallery from smoke. The two-bay service area has been partly rebuilt at the gable end, but soot on some joists suggests that it may have contained a smoke bay or smoke hood for an integral kitchen. An axial beam, dated to 1599, supports the joists of the inserted hall floor and separates the hall from an added outshot. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

OVERTON, 31-35 High Street (SU 514 497)

(a)     Primary phase

Felling dates: Summer 1541, Winter 1541/2

(b)     Inserted partition

Felling date: Winter 1568/9

(a) Principal post 1540(27½C); Corner posts 1540(18C, 19C); Purlin 1538(13). (b) Inserted collar 1568(28C). Site Master 1353-1568 OVERTON5 (t = 10.7 ABTSBRTN; 9.4 SENG98; 9.1 OVERTON3)

(c)     End extension

Felling date: Spring 1615

Tiebeam 1614(22¼C); Post 1614(23¼C); 1614(22¼C); Queen strut (0/1).  Site Master 1541-1614 OVERTON6 (t = 5.5 SARUM5; 5.4 tnk10; 5.2 KNGSARMS)

This three-bay, timber-framed house with a hearth-passage plan has been dated to 1541/2. It is perhaps unique in Hampshire in that it is jettied to both front and rear, but not to the gable ends. The jetty over the High Street is explicable in terms of display and status, but the jetty to the rear is more puzzling. In spite of these display features the framing is not especially large or of outstanding quality. An added in-line bay dates to 1615; it was originally unfloored and has sooted rafters and was  presumably an attached kitchen or brewhouse. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

OVERTON, Parsonage Farm (SU 506 495)

(a)     Cross-wing        

Felling date range: 1431-35

(b)     Hall range          

Felling dates: Spring 1546

(a) Principal rafter 1411 (H/S+20C NM); Rafters 1400 (1), 1404 (1), 1408 (1); Tiebeam (0/1).  (b) Collars 1545 (31¼C, 42¼C); Raking strut (0/1). Site Master 1326-1545 OVERTON7 (t = 10.1 HANTS02; 7.3 BATCHLRS; 7.3 REF3).

This large house was the centre of an ecclesiastical living, a sinecure in the gift of the bishops of Winchester. Both the cross wing and the hall have stone rubble ground floors with timber-framed first floors and stone lateral stacks. The wing contains a three-bay great chamber with access to a demolished bay or bays, that may have served as an inner room. The roof is of clasped-purlin form, typical in Hampshire at this date. The hall has an original attic floor and straight wind braces – an early example of this feature in Hampshire. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167)

OVERTON, 56 and 58 Winchester Street (SU 517 493)

Felling dates: Winter 1531/2 and Spring 1533

Principal post (0/1); Stud 1531(31C); Rafters (2/3) 1532(24¼C2). Site Master 1447-1532 OVERTON4 (t=5.5 WILBURY; 5.4 EXTON; 5.0 MASTERAL)

This house is situated beside the former market street of a small town.  It contains the service bay and a single-bay hall from what was probably a three-bay house.  The original structure has queen-strut trusses with a felling date of 1533.  Three timbers from a smoke hood inserted into the low end of the hall were also sampled but failed to date.  Dating part-funded by Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

OVERTON, 75-77 Winchester Street (SU 516 496)

Felling dates: Spring 1542; Summer 1543; Winter 1543/4; Spring 1544

Studs 1543 (7¼C); 1543 (16C; 27C); Principal post 1543 (36C); Window jamb 1543 (13C); Axial beam 1542 (17½C); Tiebeam 1541 (16¼C); Brace 0/1; joist (0/1). Site Master 1397-1543 OVERTON3 (t=10.5 MASTERAL; 9.6 SALOP95; 9.2 MOTISFNT)

73-77 Winchester Street, Overton, is a three-bay town house dated to 1544. See Individual Case Studies (Roberts and Miles 1997, VA 28, 120-21) (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

OWSLEBURY, Hensting Farm (SU 497 225)

Felling date: Winter 1651/2

Ex situ wallplate 1636(h/s); Posts 1621, 1623(h/s), 1636(h/s+8NM), 1640(h/s), 1641(10+6NM), 1647(9), 1651(27C). Site Master 1514–1651 HENSTING (t = 6.8 WIN42HSB, 6.1 HANTS02, 5.7 MDMYARD).

This Grade II* barn is listed as being fi fteenth century with a seventeenth-century addition at the north end. It is discussed in E. Roberts and M. Gale, ‘Henry Mildmay’s New Farms, 1656–1704’, Proc Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Soc 50 (1995), 169–92, in which a mid-seventeenth-century date is suggested, on the evidence of its diminished principal rafters, raking queen struts and short straight wind-braces; this dating is now confi rmed by dendrochronology. The fi ne stonework is thought to be reused from a nearby site in Marwell. Attached to one gable end of the barn is a single-bay stable, dated by documentary evidence to 1658.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

PETERSFIELD, The Donkey Cart (SU 747 233)

Felling date: Winter 1533/4

Rafter 1533 (11C); Purlin 1533 (19C); Collar 1516 (H/S); Jetty joist (0/1). Site Master 1447-1533 DONKYCRT (t=8.4 EXTON; 6.7 TREES2; 6.1 MARTIN)

The Donkey Cart, Petersfield, dated to 1533/4, stands in a prime position overlooking the market square of this small town.  In 1591, it was occupied by Thomas Osborne, burgess and later mayor of Petersfield, and its fine quality suggests that it could have been built for someone of similar status (pers. comm. Mrs J Guard, Petersfield Historical Society).  It is a four-bay, continuously-jettied house of hearth passage plan.  The roof is of clasped-purlin and queen-post construction and gabled at each end.  The front facing the market square has close studding with knapped flint nogging.  There is a moulded jetty bressummer, a rare feature in Hampshire where external framing was generally left plain. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

PETERSFIELD, 15 The Spain (SU 744 243)

Felling dates: Winter 1579/80

Corner posts (0/2); Tiebeam 1579(18C); Wall plates 1579(20C, 21C); Sill beam 1579(17C). Site Master 1497-1579 THESPAIN (t=7.4 SALOP95; 6.7 GWRNFYDA; 6.6 HANTS97)

This three-bay house has the earliest lobby-entry so far dated in Hampshire.  It has a clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof.  The chimney only heats the hall and is not of the back-to-back variety regularly found in seventeenth-century lobby-entry houses in Hampshire. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

PETERSFIELD, Tullys, 26 The Spain (SU 745 242)

a)       Main range

Felling dates: Spring 1441, Winter 1441/2, Spring 1442

Intermediate collar 1430(7); Intermediate principal rafter 1441(15C); Brace 1441(29¼C); Rafter 1440(18¼C); Wall plate 1438(9). Site Master 1355-1441 TULLYS (t=6.1 PALACEGT; 5.7 ODIHMPRY; 5.6 ALTON)

b)      Inserted smoke hood

Felling date: Winter 1524/5

Lodged intermediate collar 1524(29C). Site Master 1369-1524 tlys6 (t=6.8 LONDON; 6.8 MC19; 6.8 MOTISFNT)

This four-bay Wealden has dated to 1442.  Its service bay was demolished some 40 years ago.  The roof is of clasped-purlin construction and has crown struts flanked by curved, raking struts.  The hall truss has an arch-braced collar.  An inserted collar in the lower hall bay dated to 1524/5 has stave holes for a partition and seems to have formed part of a smoke hood. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

PETERSFIELD, Goodyers, The Spain (SU 745 241)

a)       East range

Felling dates: Summer 1631, Summer 1632, and Winter 1632/3

Principal rafter 1630(25½C); Centre post 1631(22½C); Rails 1632(26C), 1607(1); Purlins 1632(20C, 22C).

b)      South range

Felling dates: Spring 1636, Summer 1636, Winter 1636/7, Spring 1637

Mid-rails 1636(16C), 1635(19¼C, 20½C); Stud 1636(15¼C); Mantelbeam 1628(18).

c)       South-east range

Felling date: Winter 1641/2

Tiebeam 1641(35C). Site Master 1433-1641 GOODYERS (t=8.1 WALES97; 7.5 LONDON; 7.3 MASTERAL)

This large and rambling courtyard house on medieval foundations seems to have been substantially rebuilt by John Goodyer, a gentleman botanist, who lived there between 1629 and 1664.  The hall in the south range (felling date 1637) has ironstone walls with brick dressings, substantially framed internal partitions and a butt-purlin roof.  A timber-framed front range has been ascribed a felling date of 1632/3 and a small, jettied wing to the south-east produced a date of 1641/2.  Dating mainly funded by Mrs M Ray. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

PRIORS DEAN, Goleigh Manor (SU 743 313)

(a)     Cross-wings

Felling dates: Winter 1464/5; Spring 1465; Spring 1466

Principal rafters (1/2) 1465 (22¼C); Queen strut 1464 (26¼C); Collar 1464 (32C); Rafters (1/2) 1464 (17¼C); Shoe to rafter/purlin 1462 (29C?). Site Master 1372-1465 GOLEIGH1 (t=8.3 GEORGE; 7.8 MASTERAL; 7.5 FIELDPB)

(b)     Hall reconstruction

Felling date: Summer 1646

Principal post 1645 (45½C); Principal rafters (0/2); Brace (0/1). Site Master 1494-1645 gm7 (t=7.8 MASTERAL; 6.7 EASTMID; 6.3 STOKE5)

Goleigh Manor, Priors Dean, is a large timber-framed house comprising a central hall between jettied cross wings.  The Goleigh estate was being  put together during the 1460s by Winchester College (S Himsworth Winchester College Muniments ii) and it was undoubtedly the College that built the cross wings, dated to 1466.   The hall was probably built at the same time but was substantially rebuilt in 1646.  Both hall and cross wings have clasped purlin roofs and close studding, although the hall has mid-rails whereas the wings do not.   The two-bay solar cross wing has a fine arch-braced collar as its central truss. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

ROMSEY, 13, 15 The Abbey (SU 352 213), phase 2 roof structure 

Felling date range: 1342-74?

Upper principal rafter 1333(h/s?); Raking struts (0/2); Collar purlins (0/2); Lower collar (0/1).  Site Master 1243-1333 rom16 (t= 6.7 SOUTH; 6.3 THORNE; 5.6 HANTS02)

These houses form part of the former refectory of Romsey Abbey. The masonry walls have no obvious medieval features, apart from splayed window reveals. The roof, of which about 52ft survives, has two medieval phases. The first comprises trussed rafters of seven cants with soulaces and ashlar pieces (C. Hewett, English Historic Carpentry (1980), 89). Six samples from this phase failed to date due to insufficient rings. In the second phase, the roof was strengthened by placing three collar purlins beneath the collars and two more against the upper part of the rafters; these were supported by upper and lower collars held in place by jointed upper crucks, placed about 8ft apart. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)

ROMSEY, Sadler’s Mill (SU 3472 2088)    

Felling dates:  Spring 1747 and Winter 1747/8

Floor beams (3/7) 1747(18C, 26C), 1746(24¼C); Wall-plates 1746(17¼, 16¼C).  Site Master 1650-1747  SADLERS (t= 6.9 BAREFOOT; 6.7 SENG98; 6.0 BASINGDF)

Sadler’s Mill is a substantial brick and timber structure located on the south bank of the river Test and comprising a mill house to the south and mill building to the north. The structure is two rooms deep and two full storeys in height with an attic floor above, with a cat-slide on the back wall.  The internal structural timbers have chamfers and run-out stops and are clearly the same date as the surrounding walls. The mill formerly had two water wheels.

The dates of spring 1747 and winter 1747/8 accord well with building accounts of Henry Temple, 1st Viscount Palmerston, 1744-55 (Broadlands Archives, Special Collections, University of Southampton, BR105/1). The timber seems to have been obtained in several lots, the majority in April 1747 (dated wall plates and first floor beam).  In January and March the following year two more timber purchases were made, the oak being somewhat poorer in quality given the rate charged per ton (remaining two dated beams on the ground and first floor). The accounts show that by the end of the summer 1748 the internal works were well advanced, and by the end of the year the majority of the work would have been completed.  This study has proved especially useful in demonstrating that the timber was used green, and that some degree of stockpiling was taking place; the ground-floor beam from the second purchase would have been one of the first timbers to be set in place, and three of the five precisely-dated timbers were stockpiled during the extended building project covering two calendar years. Dating commissioned by Roger Leech on behalf of the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2005, VA 36, list 167,  Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2006, VA 37, list 178)

SELBORNE, Gilbert White's House and the Oates Museum (SU 740 338)

(a) Oldest roof             

Felling date: Spring 1611

(b) Roof phase 15       

Felling date range: 1725-49

(a) Collar 1557, Principal rafter 1568, Queen posts 1585(2), 1610(38¼C). (b) Rafters (3/5) 1702, 1717(1), 1722(14). Site Masters (a) 1457-1610 SELBRNE1 (t = 10.1 CHAWTON3; 7.7 HANTS02; 7.0 LONDON1175); (b) 1620-1722 SELBRNE2 (t = 9.0 HANTS02; 8.2 ESSEX; 7.2 OXON93).

The complex of buildings has nineteen identified roof phases, of which three, over the oldest central parts of the complex were of particular interest; two were dated but the third was composed of reused timbers. Dating commissioned by Hampshire County Council and the Friends of Gilbert White’s House. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)

SHERBORNE ST JOHN, 6-8 West End (SU 618 558)

Felling dates: Spring 1441, Spring 1444

Principal post 1440(23¼C); Stud (1/2) 1443(17¼C); Tiebeam (0/1); Axial beam (0/1). Site Master 1353-1443 wes2 (t = 5.9 GEORGIN1; 5.0 ncc4; HANTS97)

This is an unusual example of a rural Wealden house in central Hampshire, dated to 1444. The jetty has been underbuilt and the recessed, single-bay hall has been built out. Opposing mortices on inner studs in the hall bay held a rail from which sprang coving to the flying wall plate. The framing is plain but of good quality. There is an internal jetty at the high end of the hall and mortice evidence that the parlour bay was divided along the axial beam. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

SHERBORNE ST JOHN, The Vyne, Garden House (SU 633 563)

Felling dates: Spring 1632; Spring 1632

Ribs to dome 3/5 1631 (26¼C); 1630 (26¼C); 1598 (H/S). Site Master 1459-1630 THEVYNE1 (t=8.1 WC KITCH; 7.6 OXON93; 7.5 MASTERAL)

Originally one of a pair, the brick Summer House at the Vyne is shaped as a Greek cross, with four short equal arms.  It has a domed roof and until the 1950’s was divided into two floors.  The internal wall surfaces support some moulded plaster decoration at first floor level and it seems probable that internally, the dome bore decorated plasterwork.  The garden house has been ascribed to John Webb, an apprentice to Inigo Jones, but the tree-ring date of 1632 would make it virtually his first private commission.

In 1888 Chaloner W. Chute in his book A History of the Vyne in Hampshire described how the first Chaloner Chute, who bought the property in 1653 ‘removed the base court towards the water, and built the Portico and Summer House’.  Whilst the Portico was sampled but failed to date, the tree-ring evidence suggests that the Summer House predates Chute by a generation.  Historically little in known about this structure before it appears in illustrations and inventories in the mid-eighteenth century.  The National Trust have owned the property since The Vyne estate was bequeathed in 1956.  Recent repair work, funded by the Charlotte Bonham-Carter Charitable Trust, the North Hampshire National Trust Centre and local authorities, provided an opportunity to conduct a limited amount of archaeological recording, undertaken on behalf of the Trust by Edward Wilson who provided these notes. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

SHERBORNE ST JOHN, The Vyne (SU 633 563)

(a)     Chapel

Felling date: Spring 1524

(b)     South wing to Chapel

Felling date: Winter 1524/5

(c)     East corridor to Oak Gallery

Felling date: Winter 1524/5

(d)     Oak Gallery

Felling date: Summer 1526

(e)     Main range

Felling date range:1517-1541

(a) Principal rafters (1/2) 1523 (20¼C); Purlins (1/2) 1523 (22¼C). (b) Collar 1524 (32C). (c) Joists 1524 (13C, 20C). (d) Principal rafter 1525 (17½C). Collar (0/1). (e) Transverse beams 1510 (H/S), 1511 (3) 1517-1549; Tiebeams (1/2) 1500 (H/S). Site Master 1389-1523 THEVYNE2 (t=6.9 ACTON; 6.6 HANTS97; 6.2 THEVYNE1)

(f)      South front

Felling date: Early spring 1654

Transverse beam 1653 (28¼C); Joists 1653 (25¼C, 28¼C).  Site Master 1543-1653 THEVYNE3 (t=9.3 MASTERAL; 8.7 WHTOWER6; 8.3 STNSTJN4)

The standing structures of The Vyne mansion include elements of what was in the sixteenth century a far larger Tudor complex.  This extensive collection of high status buildings were at least partially brick built and several brick elements of Tudor construction survive as parts of the existing house.  These include the long, or Oak Gallery, a three-storey tower, and a chapel.  Major demolition and construction work in the seventeenth century have left The Vyne a mixture of architectural styles.  As part of the recent major refurbishment works to the house, a detailed programme of archaeological recording was undertaken, including a summary dendro dating survey, examining 18 samples from five areas, giving felling dates from spring 1524 to summer 1526.  The latter date, for the Oak Gallery roof, compares well with the carved panelling in the Oak Gallery itself which could not have been any later than 1527 for it portrays Cardinal Wolsey who was disgraced in 1528. The dates appear to progress from east to west, although further precise felling dates are needed to confirm this. The samples showed a distinct lack of intra-site matching, suggesting the trees were obtained from diverse sources which would reflect a such protracted building programme.  Five samples were taken from later alterations.  Whilst the Portico roof failed to date, those from the south front produced spring 1654 felling dates.  Dating commissioned by Edward Wilson who undertook the archaeological recording work at The Vyne for the National Trust.  See also VA 28, p.175-181. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

SILCHESTER, The Mount (SU 645 627)

Felling date: c.1405

Crucks 1383(h/s), 1395(15+c10CNM). Site Master 1248-1393 SLCHSTR1 (t = 5.6 ROOKLEY; 5.4 LONDON; 5.4 WINDSOR)

This large cruck house, dating to c.1405, stands some 7.3m high at the apex. Of the three cruck trusses that survive, one is the central hall truss and the other two define the service bay. The crucks are all of type W, but the two internal trusses have apparently original principals, which clasp a saddle and a diagonally set ridge beam. Unusually, the purlins are tenoned into the cruck blades. A new wall of conventional framing, located in the middle of the second hall bay, with a date of 1724 on the inside of the tie beam, represents a major repair following the demolition of the parlour bay. 

All the timbers of the primary frame had less than 40 rings, the arch braces having the widest ring widths seen by this laboratory at 5/8in (16mm). Only the crucks had sufficient rings for dating, and paradoxically, their outer edges had some of the narrowest rings ever encountered in oak. Although bark edge was present on both crucks, the narrow rings were so tight that only the last ten could be counted, and even then uncertainly. Therefore only a c.1405 date can be given – the felling date could vary a year or two either way. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

SOUTHAMPTON, Tudor House Museum, Bugle Street & Blue Anchor Lane
(SU 425 116)

(a) ‘Tudor House’ of John Dawtrey Felling dates: Winter 1490/1; Spring 1491; Summer 1491; Winter 1491/2; Winter 1492/3

(b) Rear wing along Blue Anchor Lane, at cellar level Felling dates: Spring 1444; Summer 1446; Spring 1448

(c) Reused timbers from cellar under south-west, Georgian, wing Felling date: Spring 1481

(d) Southern ‘Cottage’, Primary phase Felling date: Winter 1461/2 (e) Inserted floor to ‘Cottage’ Felling date: Summer 1631

(a) Tiebeam 1469(2+12 NM); Studs 1491(20C), 1432; Principal rafter 1485(9); Common rafters (1/3) 1484(27); Beam/wallplate 1486(h/s); Beams 1492(12C), 1490(25¼C), 1479(h/s), 1473(h/s), 1471(h/s); Joists (11/12) 1490(16¼C, 17C2, 23½C), 1474(h/s), 1473(h/s), 1472(1), 1471(1), 1468(h/s2), 1440(h/s); Corner posts (3/5) 1475(h/s), 1475, 1445; Principal posts 1476(h/s), 1471(h/s); Inner window sill 1475(h/s); Lower rails 1480(12), 1465(h/s); Centre plank to bay window (0/1); Replacement upper plate (0/1). (b) Principal posts 1447(11¼C), 1445(17); Principal rafter 1447(24¼C); Tiebeam (0/1); Cellar beams 1445(15½C), 1434(1), 1431(1); Cellar ceiling joist 1443(14¼C); Wallplate (0/1). (c) Joists 1480(22¼C, 28¼C), 1467(8+14¼C NM), 1458(2), 1455(h/s); Beams 1458(1+20¼C NM), 1453(1+24 NM); Inserted reused post (0/1); Inserted ash posts (0/2). (d) Collar 1461(25C); Tiebeam 1442(1+15 ¼C NM); Purlin 1429 (h/s); Rafter 1463(28); Wallplate (0/1). (e) Axial beam 1630(40½C); Replacement rafters 1483, 1513, 1560(7); Inserted stud (0/1). Site Masters (a) 1331–1492 TUDORHS1 (t = 10.0 MOTISFNT; 9.7 SARUM11; 9.3 STOLAFS); (b) 1354–1447 TUDORHS2 (t = 6.3 GODBEGOT; 6.1 FRLWLLP1; 5.6 MC19); (c) 1332–1480 TUDORHS3 (t = 6.1 WCCLOSE2; 5.6 GODBEGOT; 5.6 PLACEHS); (d) 1289–1463 TUDORHS4 (t = 9.0 HANTS02; 8.6 GODBEGOT; 8.3 LUCCOMBE); (e) 1399–1630 TUDORHS5 (t = 10.4 LIDDELLS; 8.6 HANTS02; 8.3 ELSTEAD)

This major timber-framed town house was built on the corner of Bugle Street and Blue Anchor Lane by Sir John Dawtrey between 1491 and 1493/4. He incorporated, possibly as service wings, pre-existing cottages of 1444-8 to the west, and 1461/2 to the south. A Georgian range to the south-west includes reused timbers from 1481 but their original provenance is unknown. The main body of the house comprises a great hall heated by a stone chimney with an impressive great chamber above. Attached to this, and of the same date, is a three-storeyed range with three gables fronting the street whose façade is mainly authentic but with some nineteenth-century ‘Tudorisation’. The projecting porch is part of the primary build and its present fl at roof appears to be original. Some timbers from the cottage of 1444–8 seem to have been reused in the main house and in the cellar beneath. The 1461/2 cottage was originally built with an open hall over a stone-vaulted undercroft; the hall was floored over in 1631. Dating commissioned by Southampton Archaeology Unit who have been undertaking detailed recording as part of the present restoration project, funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

SOUTHWICK, Southwick Barn (SU 626 087)

(a)     Main structure

Felling date: Summer 1514

Tiebeam 1513 (37½C); Principal posts (0/2). Site Master 1379-1513 swb2 (t=6.7 BRUTON3; 6.6 WHTOWER3; 6.0 MASTERAL)

(b)     Re-used jetty joists in granary extension

Felling date: Winter 1493/4

Joists 1493 (18C)2, 1492 (13) Site Master 1362-1493 SWKBARN (t=6.0 EXTON; 5.7 FRDABBY1; 5.5 BRUTON2)

Southwick Barn is composed of two separate building frames.  The larger and earlier building is a barn of five bays with a central threshing floor, dated to 1514.  Unlike many historic barns in Hampshire, it lacks side aisles.  In other respects it is typical of sixteenth-century barns in this region in that it has a clasped-purlin roof, queen-strut trusses, and curved wind braces. Southwick Barn appears to have been a rectorial or tithe barn, in the hands of the Prior and convent of Southwick until the dissolution in 1538 (VCH Hants, iii, p. 165). In 1512, the spire of the Priory church was struck by lightning and the bulk of the building was destroyed.  It appears likely that the predecessor of the present barn was destroyed in the same fire.

The other framed building in this complex is an attached stables with granary above, probably eighteenth or nineteenth century in date, from which samples could not be dated.  The floor joists, however, are chamfered and clearly re-used from a demolished, jettied, domestic building, shown to have been built originally in 1494.  Two houses held by the rectory in Southwick were reported in 1494 to have been blown down in high winds.  Thus, these joists could be remnants of the rebuilding of these houses. Dating commissioned by Simon Thorpe for Winchester Museums Service and by Chris Langford for the Southwick Estate. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

SOUTH  STONEHAM, Shamblehurst Manor Farm (SU 496 148)

 (a)    Main range

Felling dates: Summer 1547 and Winter 1547/8

Purlin 1547 (16C); Studs 1546 (24½C), 1547 (19C). Site Master 1419-1547 SHAMBLE (t=6.4 OXON93; 6.2 MASTERAL; 6.0 SOUTH)

(b)     End extension

Felling date: Winter 1575/6

Axial beam 1575 (18C). Site Master 1434-1575 shmbl4(t=4.9 HARCHRCH; 4.8 shu6; 4.6 THEVYNE1; 4.0 SHAMBLE)

Shamblehurst Manor, South Stoneham is a jettied house, built on the hearth-passage plan common in larger houses in Hampshire at this time (see Bramley Manor, Bramley above).  On the jettied front and at first-floor level are decorative, ogee tension braces.   The house contains four aligned bays, including the fairly narrow bay for the chimney and passage.  The roof is half-hipped with the clasped-purlin and queen-strut trusses that were common in central Hampshire for several centuries.   An extension at one end was added in 1575/6 and contains large square-sectioned joists with soffit tenons. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

STEEP, Tankerdale Farm (SU 766 258)

Felling dates: Winter 1621/2 and Spring 1622

Rear arcade/wall plate 1621 (16C); Principal rafters (4/6) 1621 (22C), 1605 (10), 1621 (21¼C), 1612 (15); Purlin, queen strut, first floor girt, wall plate, floor boards (0/6). Site Master 1534-1621 tnk10 (t=5.7 THEVYNE3; 5.7 MARLBORO; 5.2 STNSTJN4)

Tankerdale Farm is a 3½ bay farmhouse with a rear outshut enclosing a stair tower which rises to the attic floor.  A lobby entry gives access on one side to a central hall and a kitchen beyond that.  On the other side is a parlour above a coeval cellar.  The partition between the rear outshut and the parlour is offset into the main body of the house so that, in effect, there is an internal jetty over the outshut at this point.  The ground floor is close studded and the roof is of the clasped-purlin, queen-strut type common in Hampshire in the seventeenth century.  The felling date of 1622 corresponds to the inheritance of the property in 1623 by one Thomas Eames.  The farm exceeded 80 acres and was one of the largest in the parish.  It is thus appropriate that the farmhouse should be unusually large for this area. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

ST MARY BOURNE, Hunsdale and The Cottage (SU 423 505)

Felling date: Winter 1438/9

Cruck blades (4/5) 1438(20C); Collar (0/1); Purlins (0/2); Upright (0/1). Site Master 1335–1438 smb9 (t = 6.2 MALMSBRY; 5.9 HANTS02, 5.9 CRADLEY, 5.5 PLACEHS).

Hunsdale and The Cottage were recently seriously damaged by fi re. They stood parallel to the main street of St Mary Bourne and originally consisted of six, or possibly seven, cruck trusses, making an unusually long medieval timber-framed building. Elements of six cruck trusses survived the fi re and there was no reason to doubt that both properties once formed part of a cruck house of a single build, and that the single dated cruck blade formed part of this primary structure. The cruck blades were of good quality and two trusses were suffi ciently sound to be incorporated into a new building being erected on the same site. The cruck apexes were mainly type D and F1 (N. W. Alcock, Cruck Construction (CBA, 1981)).(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

TICHBORNE, The Old Post Office (SU 571 304)

Felling date: Winter 1608/9

1st floor transverse beams 1608 (40C), 1593 (13).  Site Master 1408-1608  TCHBRNPO (t=9.4 HANTS97; 7.7 EXTON; 7.4 MASTERAL)

In many ways this is typical of the better, peasant house in early seventeenth-century Hampshire.  It is composed of 3½ bays with a back-to-back chimney in the half bay, in which a lobby entry is on one side and winding stairs on the other.  There is also the typical clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof.  However, the jetty on the long, front side lends a distinction that is lacking in many such houses in the county.  A further, in-line bay was an early, framed addition – perhaps to house an elderly relative. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

TITCHFIELD, The Abbey Barn, Fernhill Farm (SU 539 066)

(a)     Main structure

Felling dates: Spring 1407 and Winter 1408/9

Tiebeam 1408 (19C); Arcade posts (2/3) 1406 (38¼C), 1408 (29C); Arcade plate, Aisle passing brace (0/2). Site Master 1311-1406 titch3 (t=7.2 WINDSOR; 7.1 EXCATH1; 6.8 NCADBRY3 )

(b)     North porch

Felling date range: 1560-62

Wall post 1559 (12). Site Master 1495-1559 titch4 (t=6.3 HEREFC; 6.1 STOLAFS; 5.9 HANTS97)

The Abbey Barn stands in the outer precinct of the former Premonstratensian abbey. It is a large aisled barn of 16 bays constructed of major and minor trusses.  The principal trusses have arcade posts with arch braces to the tiebeam; while the intermediate trusses have jointed crucks to a stub collar beam (or false hammer beam).  Above this level, side purlins are clasped between outer principal rafters and under-rafters, the latter terminating at an upper collar.  Above the collars are short king posts with braces to the ridge purlin.  This highly unusual framing has given a felling date of 1408/9. The timber-framed walls were mainly replaced by stone, probably shortly after the Dissolution when building stone would have been readily available from the adjacent monastic buildings.  The wagon entrances have been enlarged and rebuilt, one timber from a porch dating to 1560-1562. See Mercer, E. 1975 English Vernacular Houses, p. 164 (sub Fareham). (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

TITCHFIELD, Great Posbrook Barn (SU 535 050)

(a) Arcade posts 1 Felling date range: 1579–90 (OxCal; unrefi ned 1574–1606)

(b) Arcade posts 2 Felling date range: 1608–22 (OxCal; unrefi ned 1603–35)

Arcade posts (a) 1561(h/s), 1564(h/s), 1565(h/s), 1572(1) (b) 1592(h/s)2, 1600(3). Site Master 1476–1600 PSBROOK1 (t = 8.0 HANTS02, 7.9 POLANDF1, 7.7 SOUTH).

This large barn aligned east–west, nearly 100ft in length, is hipped at each end. It has ten bays (eleven trusses) and is aisled on both sides. The trusses have raking queen struts and clasped side purlins. Principal posts of two date ranges are intermingled within the barn with the older ones in trusses 4, 7 and 6 (south post), and the younger timbers in trusses 2 and 6 (north post) (trusses numbered from the west end). A possible explanation of this unusual situation is that posts were prepared but set aside until further preparation and erection of the frame was undertaken.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2009, VA 40, list 213)

TITCHFIELD, Place House Cottage (SU 543 066)

Felling date: Winter 1447/8

Collar 1447 (32C); Principal rafter 1445 37?C); Rafter 1424 (1+12 NM). Site Master 1311-1447 PLACEHS (t=7.9 SOUTH; 7.5 SENG98; 7.1 HANTS97)

Place House Cottage, Titchfield contains a two-bay structure built as an open hall but with unsooted rafters in 1447/8.  It stands in or near the precincts of Titchfield Abbey.  The hall truss has remnants of moulded arch braces and a moulded tie beam.  There is close studding on a ground-floor elevation with herringbone brick nogging.  At first-floor level there are large, curved arch braces.   The roof is gabled at both ends and has clasped purlins.  Shortly after the Dissolution, Leland recorded that it was used as a school.  Dating part-funded by Fareham Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

TITCHFIELD, The Jetty, 28 South Street (SU 540 057)

Felling date: Winter 1412/13

(a)     Primary phase

Rafters (1/2) 1412 (26C); Gallery beam 1412 (13C); Stave 1412 (18C); Purlin (0/1)

(b)     Later alterations to hall

Felling date range: 1489-1521

Stud 1473 (H/S); Staves 1479; 1481 (4); 1486 (15). Site Master 1355-1486 THEJETTY (t=7.6 HANTS97; 7.3 RYECOTT1; 7.0 SOUTH)

The Jetty, South Street, Titchfield is a continuously-jettied house of 1412/13 with an integral gallery across the formerly open hall.  This is an unusual type that seems to be something of a Hampshire speciality (see E. Lewis et al., 1988,  Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area, Winchester).   The hall truss is unusual for Hampshire and could be described either as of raised aisle form or as having arch braces curving inwards from queen struts to the collar beam. This open truss has been partitioned and the hall end truss altered between 1489 and 1521.  Dating part-funded by Fareham Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

TITCHFIELD, Segensworth Farm (SU 541 070), stable

Felling date range: 1436-1467

Collar 1410; Purlin 1435(9). Site Master 1371-1435 SEGNWRTH (t = 8.6 FIELDPB; 7.8 EGRNSTD4; 7.6 EASTBARN).

This seven-bay structure has large tension-braced panels to the upper parts, but the original framing of the lower part is uncertain. The upper part of the wall on the west side is also composed of large tension-braced panels and at present rests on a wall of what appears to be eighteenth-century brickwork. The two northern bays contain trusses of a slightly different form from the rest. One of these bays (sixth from the south) has smoke-blackened timbers and this may imply living accommodation for the head groom. Segensworth was a manor of the wealthy Wayte family in the fifteenth century and it is probable that this was built as a riding stable. It bears comparison with the larger Priory Stables in Winchester, now part of The Pilgrims’ School (see below). Dating commissioned by the Hampshire Field Club.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

TITCHFIELD, St Margaret’s Priory (SU 534 063)

Felling dates: Winter 1621/2 - Spring 1623

Transverse beams 1622(28¼C, 17C), Longitudinal beams 1622(20C), 1621(22C); Joists 1622(21¼C2, 19C, 20C), 1621(20¼C), 1620(34), 1600(h/s); Trimmer 1622(19¼C); Stair newel 1560; Stud 1605(17C NM); String 1622(14¼C); Purlin (0/1). Site Master 1451-1622 STMRGRTS (t=9.5 HANTS97; 8.8 BDLEIAN4; 8.3 OVERTON3)

St Margaret’s Priory, Titchfield, is a long range of at least seven bays running east-west, with a three-storey tower over an open porch. The range originally had a long corridor running along the northern side of the range, as evidenced by the square-sectioned longitudinal beam framed into the moulded transverse beams.  Another longitudinal beam, this time moulded, runs down the centre axis of the remaining room on the ground floor.  Upstairs, the first floor is divided into two principal chambers, the westernmost known as the Banqueting Room with a coved ceiling rising to the collars from a solid moulded oak cornice.

The dating was commissioned by the BBC for ‘The House Detectives’ to resolve conflicting phasing evidence.  The building was reputed to have been constructed in the 1570s, but the staircase, which is well integrated in the structure, had been dated stylistically as post-1620. Confirmation was also needed of the date of the tower and that the oak cornice and frieze of the Banqueting Room was the same date as the staircase.  The tree-ring dating has confirmed that all of these elements were constructed during or shortly after 1623. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

TUNWORTH, Beechcroft (SU 673 485)

a)       Primary phase

Felling date: Winter 1601/2

Principal posts (1/2) 1601(9C); Wall plate (0/1); Joists (0/2). Site Master 1453-1601 bct4 (t=6.9 WHTOWER5; 6.2 EASTMID; 6.1 MASTERAL)

b)      Inserted rafters to smoke bay

Felling date: Winter 1686/7

Rafters 1686(20C), 1677(9). Site Master 1618-1686 bct78 (t=7.9 HIGHHALL; 7.9 LONDON; 6.9 MASTERAL)

This four-bay cottage (felling date 1601/2)has the clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof and small-panel framing with straight braces typical of this date.  However the house is unusual in having a lobby-entrance plan without a back-to-back brick chimney.  Instead, a smoke bay is divided longitudinally so that one half has an open hearth and the other a lobby-entry below and a gallery above.  A wattle-and-daub screen prevented smoke from the hearth invading the gallery and first-floor chambers.  Inserted rafters in the smoke bay roof dated to winter 1686/7 may relate to the infilling of the smoke louvre. Dating part-funded by Mr and Mrs I Doulton and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 2000, VA 31, list 108)

UP NATELY, Andwell, Priory Farm barn (SU 688 526), Phase 2   

Felling date ranges: 1443-75 to 1454-86

Collar 1446(1); Principal rafters 1437(1), 1440(6); Arcade plate 1445(4); Arcade post 1460(h/s).  Site Master 1353-1460 PBA (t= 8.1 HANTS02; 8.0 EASTBARN; 7.7 GARDENCT)

Priory Farm was a large estate formerly owned by an alien priory. Winchester College acquired it in 1391 and retained it until the twentieth century. The large barn of nine bays is an aisled building with two wagon entrances. It was built in three main phases. The earliest may originally have extended to at least six bays but now comprises only two trusses with crown struts and clasped side purlins which, typologically of early or mid fifteenth-century date, were unsuitable for sampling. Phase 2, represented by two bays with curved braces and queen-strut trusses, was apparently added to phase 1. Lack of sapwood precludes more precise comparison with the documentary construction date of 1478/9. The three central bays were rebuilt in phase 3; their straight braces and queen-strut trusses suggest a late sixteenth or seventeenth-century date. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)

UP SOMBORNE, Rookley Farmhouse (SU 397 283)

Felling dates: Spring 1388

Crown post 1387 (28¼C); Brace 1387 (24¼C); Principal rafter 1356 (H/S); Collar 1349 (4); Tiebeam 1349 (H/S); Rafters (0/2). Site Master 1154-1387 ROOKLEY (t=11.9 MASTERAL; 10.1 OXON93; 10.0 SENGLAND)

Rookley Farmhouse, Up Somborne, dated to 1388, is a two-bay solar cross wing situated on the outskirts of a small village.  It has short, undecorated central crown post from which rise four plain and slightly-curved braces.  Only the collar purlin is chamfered, although even this is unusually ornate for Hampshire carpentry.  The central truss has an arch-braced tie beam, and the wall framing is composed of large panels with large foot and head braces. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

WARNFORD, Bere Farm (SU 626 253)

Felling date: Winter 1528/9

Queen strut 1528 (33C); Rafter 1528 (25C); Principal rafter (0/1). Site Master 1400-1528 BEREFARM (t=8.0 HANTS97; 6.9 GROVEFM; 6.5 ASHLEY3)

Bere Farm, Warnford is a large farmhouse belonging to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. From 1528/9, only a parlour and a two-bay, floored hall survive.  In spite of its relatively large scale, the house is composed of sound but plain carpentry.  It has the clasped-purlin, queen-strut roof that is common in central Hampshire.  Several more bays in the same alignment appear to have replaced the original service bay(s) in the early seventeenth century. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

WARNFORD, Riversdown (SU 603 248)

Felling dates: Winter 1325/6 and Spring 1327

Arcade post 1325 (25C); Arch-braces 1326 (31¼C, 40¼C); Door head 1293.  Site Master 1074-1326  RIVRSDWN (t=10.9 MASTERAL; 10.8 SOUTH; 10.0 LONDON)

This is a large, base-cruck hall of two bays.  It has a sans-purlin roof. In each rafter couple, long curved braces rest on cornices above the arcade plates  and rise to a high collar beam.  The hall truss is moulded and bears traces of a carved boss.  An end truss survives with aisle posts and a door to one side, a position that may indicate that this was the high end.  In 1337, Hugh de St. John died possessed of Riversdown and he may well have been the builder of the hall.  The St. Johns were one of the main lay landowners in Hampshire.  The dendrochronology work was part-funded by the owner Mrs Lewis. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

WEST MEON, Garden Cottage (SU 641 238)

Felling dates: Winter 1440/41; Spring 1441

Rafters (1/3) 1440 (6¼C); Tiebeam 1440 (22¼C); Windbrace 1440 (22¼C); Jetty plate 1440 (17¼C); Girt 1440 (20C); Principal rafter (0/1); Principal post (0/1). Site Master 1360-1440 GARDENCT (t=8.3 GOLEIGH1; 8.2 PROWSEBN; 7.7 WESTHELE)

Garden Cottage, West Meon, is a three-bay, box-framed house dated to 1441.   It has a clasped purlin roof which is fully wind-braced.  Much of the external wall framing survives, as does and internal jetty and elements of hall the screen.  The house has a single-bay hall, is 21 feet high at its apex and covers 804 square feet.  It is typical of a number of late-medieval peasant houses that survive in Hampshire (see Thatched Cottage, North Warnborough - above).  When first surveyed, it was believed that the house was originally gabled at both ends  (E. Lewis et al 1988 Medieval Hall Houses of the Winchester Area, 88-91), however, further work has shown that it was in fact half-hipped. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

WEST  TYTHERLEY, Church Farm House (SU 276 298)

(a)     Hall and Jettied cross-wing         

Felling dates: Summer/autumn 1334; Winter 1334/5

(b)     Hall reconstruction repair

Felling date range: 1776-1808

(a) Re-used Hall rafters 1334(18C, 19C); Collar 1334(19C); Principal rafters 1334(24C), 1322(12); Jetty joists 1334(18C), 1333(12); Purlins 1333(16½C), 1329(14); Inner principal 1333(15½C); (b) Principal rafter 1774(7).  Site Masters 1242-1334 TYTHRLY1 (t = 8.8 LOW-A; 8.1 SMMRSFRM; 7.1 HANTS02); wty16 1689-1774 (t = 7.2 HANTS02; 7.2 EASTMID; 6.4 SENG98)

A hall range with a two-phase cross wing. The earlier part of the cross wing is two-storied and of two bays. Its roof uses common rafters only, except that in the central truss and the hip truss a shorter inner principal rafter is pegged to the soffit of the common rafter and tenoned into the underside of the collar, creating compound diminished principal rafter; this clasps a side purlin to the collar. There are curved wind braces, dragon ties and possibly an applied jetty, as at Monk’s Cottage, Odiham (Miles & Haddon-Reece 1996, VA 27). Evidence (including two truncated arcade plates and a number of ex situ rafters) survives for a hall integral with the earlier cross-wing. The hall was later reconstructed with a roof containing large principals with curved feet and tenoned purlins. A replacement principal rafter to this later roof (b) dated to 1776-1808. A solar cross wing with a refined crown-post roof has been added to the earlier cross wing on the same alignment (not suitable for sampling). Dating commissioned by the owner. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

WESTON PATRICK, New Farm (SU 696453), Barn

Felling date: Spring 1541

Stud (reused?) 1461(2); Unprov. timber 1493(h/s); Wall plates? (1/2) 1540(19¼C). Site Master 1395-1540 WSTNPTRC (t = 6.5 HANTS97; 6.2 OVERTON3; 5.8 ABTSBRTN)

This timber-framed barn or multi-purpose agricultural building has now been re-erected at The Gilbert White Museum, Selborne, Hampshire. It is a single-aisled structure of four bays with hipped aisles at either end. It appears to have had a single wagon entrance like a barn but the three intermediate trusses have empty mortices that imply original partitions and perhaps other uses besides grain storage. It has a queen-strut, clasped-purlin roof and the wind braces and arch braces are curved, as was the fashion in Hampshire until the mid 16th century. The samples, collected by Carpenter Oak and Woodland, were unsuccessfully analysed ten years ago and their precise provenance and identification is unclear. After a decade of further research it is now possible to date three of them. One timber may have been reused, given its early heartwood/sapwood boundary date. The sample which produced a 1541 felling date was probably a wall plate. (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

WHITCHURCH, 4 Bell Street (SU 463 481)

Felling dates: Spring 1440 and Spring 1441

Cross-wing collar 1439 (24¼C); Hall rafters 1440 (22¼C, 23¼C); Principal rafters (0/3); Purlins (0/1); Collar (0/1). Site Master 1323-1440 BELLST (t=5.7 NWDGATE1; 5.6 5YECOTT1; 4.6 ABTSBRTN)

Number 4, Bell Street, Whitchurch is a two-bay, jettied cross wing dendro-dated to 1441.  On the first floor is a two-bay solar with a central arch-braced tie beam.   The roof has clasped-purlins, each truss with a central crown strut.  One truss of the hall survives where it adjoins the cross wing and dendrochronology has shown that this roof is coeval with the cross-wing.  This truss has a ridge beam and trenched purlins, a most unusual form for central Hampshire in a box-framed construction.  Dating funded by R J Smith and Co. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

WHITCHURCH, The Beehive, 2 Bell Street (SU 463 481)

Felling date range: 1468-1492

Tiebeam 1467 (16). Site Master 1407-1467 bee1 (t=5.9 KITCHEN; 5.8 ABTSBRTN; 5.6 OVERTON2)

The Beehive, 2 Bell Street, Whitchurch is a four-bay building dated to 1468-92.   It is jettied on two sides, constructed of massive timbers and it stands in a central position in this small market town.  This, and the fact that it appears to have no original source of heating, has led to speculation that it may have served some civic, rather than domestic, function.  It has a clasped-purlin roof with queen struts.  Two timbers from an extension were also sampled but failed to date.  Dating partly funded by R J Smith and Co and Basingstoke & Deane Borough Council. (Miles and Worthington 1999, VA 30, list 101)

WHITCHURCH, 31 Newbury Street (SU 465 484)

Felling date: Winter 1581/2

Girts 1581(18C, 19C); Transverse beam 1581(20C); Stair trimmer 1581(17C); Principal post 1581(22C). Site Master 1486-1581 WTCHRCH3 (t = 7.8 GREENHAM; 6.5 EXTON; 5.8 BEDSTONE)

This small house, dated to 1581/2, stands at right angles to the street. It has two bays of modest proportions and plain timbering, the jetty over the street being the only evidence of display. A narrow side passage leads to a small area behind, and the entrance was originally directly from the street into the front room. It was built on one of several narrow plots of wasteland at the edge of the borough, leased out at that time by the mayor and freeholders of Whitchurch. In 1616, it was leased to Edward Pearce, a clothier, who let it to a sub-tenant (Martin Smith, pers. comm). (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

WHITCHURCH, Silk Mill (SU 462 478)

(a)     Re-used window lintels   

Felling date range: 1549-81

(b)     Lintel over carriageway              

Felling date: ?1726/7

(c)     Window lintel     

Felling date range: 1794-1826

 All timbers (4/11). (a) Re-used window lintels 1540(h/s)2; (b) Lintel 1726(21?C); (c) Window lintel 1793(7). Site Masters (a) 1458-1540 WSM12M (t = 8.2 MEDMNHM1; 8.0 BDLEIAN4; 8.0 WILBURY1); (b) 1678-1726 WSM08 (t = 6.2 EASNGTN; 6.1 ORACLE; 6.0 MEDMNHM2); (c) 1728-93 WSM03 (t = 7.9 SOMRST04; 7.2 EASTMID; 6.7 HANTS02)

The main Silk Mill building is a symmetrical three-storey brick building. It was thought to have been built around 1800, consistent with date (c), though most of the timbers appear to have been reused. The roof is of softwood and was not sampled. Dating commissioned by the Whitchurch Silk Mill Trust. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2007, VA 38, list 190)

WINCHESTER, Abbots Barton Farmhouse (SU 485 305)

(a)     Main range

Felling dates: Early spring 1491 to Summer 1496

(b)     Staircase block

Felling date range: 1545-1577

(c)     Oriel window

Felling date: Early spring 1560

(a) Joists (4/5) 1490 (20¼C), 1490 (20½C), 1491 (34C), 1495 (20½C); Transverse beam (0/1). (b) Landing beam 1536 (H/S), Stair string (0/1). (c) Jamb 1559 (31¼C)   Site Master 1387-1559 ABTSBRTN (t=11.3 HANTS97; 10.0 SOUTH; 9.9 MASTERAL)

Abbots Barton Farmhouse is a large house comprising a timber-framed wing and a stone-built wing set at right angles to it.  The timber wing was jettied on two sides and was close-studded at ground-floor level.  It included a two-bay hall with kitchen bay and parlour bay at either end and was floored throughout.  The roof is composed of major trusses with clasped purlins and queen struts, and intermediate trusses with arch-braced collars.  Timbers from the first phase of this wing have produced felling dates of 1491, although a single joist with a felling date of 1496 complicates the interpretation of the actual building date. Could this indicate some very early alterations?  At this period the house belonged to Hyde Abbey, Winchester.  Timbers from later phases have been dated to 1560 (an inserted oriel window in the parlour end gable), and 1545-1577 for a new or remodelled stair tower.  See Fradgley, N, Lewis E, and Roberts E,  1996  'The Chamber over the Hall: two early post-medieval houses in Hampshire', Proc. Hampshire Field Club,51, 107-136. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

WINCHESTER, Godbegot, High Street (SU 482 297)

Felling date: Winter 1462/3

Purlin 1435; Tiebeam 1462(17C, 29C); Post 1462(30C); Rafter 1462(23C); Principal rafter 1462(23C). Site Master 1321-1462 GODBEGOT (t = 7.9 THEJETTY; 7.2 REF3; 6.9 HANTS97)

This large courtyard building in the commercial centre of the city clearly represented a substantial investment by the owners, Winchester Cathedral Priory. A three-storey range facing the High Street was double-jettied on three sides. It contains moulded beams of quality and was clearly the superior part of the building. Two, two-storey, wings, both built with good but plain carpentry, run back at right angles from the front range. They were designed to contain discrete units, perhaps as retail and workshops to let. Dendrochronology produced five precise dates of winter 1462/3 for the High Street range. Although the rear ranges were not sampled, they appear structurally coeval – the view taken by previous historians who, however, differed by a century or more in their estimation of a building date (VCH, Hants 5, 7; D. J. Keene, Survey of Medieval Winchester 2 (Oxford: 1985), 490-2).  (Miles and Worthington 2002, VA 33, list 127)

WINCHESTER, Winchester Cathedral (SU 483 293)

(a)     Nave roof

Felling dates: Winter 1246/7 to Winter 1249/50

Rafters (6/7) 1245 (17C, 19C), 1248 (14C), 1248 (21½C), 1249 (20C), 1242 (11); Soulace (0/1). Site Master 1161-1249 WINCATH1 (t=8.2 kjh1; 8.1 HANTS97; 7.9 OXON93)

(b)     South transept roof

Felling dates :Spring 1306 to Spring 1318

King struts 1305 (20¼C), King struts 1305 (20¼C), 1316 (24C, 31C, 32C2, 35C); Rafters 1307 (26¼C), 1317 (19¼C), 1295 (16); Packing rafter 1316 (24C); Lower collars (1/2) 1287 (H/S); Upper collar 1316 (30C); Inner wall plate 1280 (H/S). Site Master 1098-1317 WINCATH2 (t=10.6 READING; 10.4 MASTERAL; 10.4 CHIVES)

Construction of the present cathedral started in the late eleventh century, and was completed by the 1120s.  During major repairs to the high roof of the south transept, the opportunity arose to undertake a detailed dendro survey.  The investigation was also extended to the medieval portion of the nave roof.  The nave roof timbers date from 1249/50 but the structure was reconstructed, perhaps at the time of Wykeham's remodelling of the nave in c.1400, or possibly after a fire in 1698 when the western five bays were totally replaced.  However, the present form of the nave roof probably closely reflects its original form. It comprises a series of rafter couples with double wall plates, ashlars, soulaces, and double collars with a king strut between them.  Every fifth couple incorporates a tiebeam connecting the inner and outer plates.  At the time of the reconstruction, a system of queen struts and braced arcade plates was inserted to provide longitudinal bracing.  The roof was hitherto thought to have dated from the time of Wykeham’s rebuilding of the vaults, but the dendro dates show that the stonework must have been inserted under the existing roof.

The high roof of the south transept is of very similar design to the nave roof, except that it includes four intermediate tiebeam trusses with queen struts to the lower collar.  Both the nave trusses as well as the south transept roofs used mortice and tenon joints throughout. The samples have given precise felling dates mainly from 1316 and 1317, although one rafter dated to 1318, suggesting the roof  was actually erected in that year.  A re-used inner wall plate on the south-west side of the roof, thought to be of Norman date, has a latest ring of 1270, giving a terminus post quem or ‘felled after’ date of 1279.  Thus it was probably part of the 1318 work. Another possible Norman element is a half-round timber column, or respond, fixed to the inside south gable below the southernmost truss.  However, the crispness of the mouldings suggests that it relates to the inserted ceiling of 1820.

During repair works in the early 1980s, five samples from the west aisle of the south transept were analysed by Dr Martin Bridge (Bridge, M C, 1983  The use of tree-ring widths as a means of dating timbers from historical sites, Unpubl. PhD thesis, CNAA (Portsmouth Polytechnic).  Two appeared to be original but failed to date; the other three were re-used timbers with last measured ring dates of 1517 including virtually complete sapwood.  See also Crook, J. (ed), 1993, Winchester Cathedral – Nine Hundred Years, Phillimore. and Munby, J. & Fletcher, J., 1983 ‘Carpentry in the Cathedral and Close at Winchester’, in Medieval Art and Architecture at Winchester Cathedral, pp. 101-11, BAA Conf. Trans. 6.  Dating commissioned by the Cathedral Architect, Peter Bird of Caroe & Partners, and the Cathedral Archaeologist, John Crook, on behalf of the Dean and Chapter. (Miles and Worthington 1998, VA 29, list 91)

WINCHESTER, Cathedral Close, The Deanery (SU 484 293), the old bakehouse           

Felling date: Spring 1663

Joists 1662(16¼C, 21¼C, 27¼C); Principal rafters 1662(18, 17¼C); Transverse beam (0/1). Site Master 1593-1662 WINCHCBH (t= 6.5 MARLBORO; 5.5 win42hsb; 5.5 HANTS02)

The old bakehouse, or brewhouse, stands to the north-east of The Deanery on the west side of a service courtyard. It is of brick and stone with a tiled roof, originally of three bays with gabled roof and end chimneys. The dating shows that it was constructed at the same time as the Deanery was rebuilt (1662-68) (J. Crook, The Wainscot Book – The Houses of Winchester Cathedral Close and their Interior Decoration 1660 – 1800, Hants County Council, 1984). A one-bay extension was added to the north (late seventeenth century) with a covered external staircase transforming the roof to a hip with gablets. Dating commissioned by the Dean and Chapter. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)

WINCHESTER, Winchester Cathedral Close, The Pilgrims’ School, Priory Stables (SU 483 285)

Felling dates: Spring 1478; Winter 1478/9; Spring 1479

Rail 1478(26¼C); Posts 1478(59C), 1477(35¼C); Tiebeams 1476(31), 1469(10+8NM), 1455(H/S). Site Master 1245-1478 PILGRIM2 (t = 12.8 HANTS02; 11.9 SENG98; 11.4 WCCLOSE2).

A fine two-storeyed timber-framed range of ten bays aligned approximately north-south and standing within the outer precinct of the former Winchester Cathedral Priory. It was certainly a stable by the mid-seventeenth century and was very probably built as a stable, although it is undocumented. Externally, it has close-studding at ground-floor level with large, curved braces above. Original stairs lead up to a first-floor chamber which occupies the two northern bays and has superior framing and windows with multiple lights. This could well have been the office of a Priory official. The next seven bays at first-floor level formed one long chamber, possibly for storage or as a dormitory for visitors or grooms. The seven bays beneath were lit so poorly that they seem to have been intended as a pair of stables (three and four bays respectively). The southernmost bay may have housed the head groom.(Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2008, VA 39, list 203)

WINCHESTER, 10 The Close, Winchester Cathedral (SU 481 291) 

(a)           Undercroft repair           

Felling date: Winter 1392/3

Braces 1392(23C), 1387(24); Beam (0/1).  Site Master 1287-1392 WCCLOSE1 (t = 11.1 HANTS02; 9.2 GEORGIN1; 9.2 BRDCMBCT)

(b)          Phase 2 re-roofing (low pitch)    

Felling dates: Winter 1435/6 and Winter 1443/4

Tiebeams 1443(21C), 1435(14C), 1420(h/s); Principal rafter 1422(5). Site Master 1284-1443 WCCLOSE2 (t = 8.1 TREES2; 8.0 OVERTON3; 7.9 HUNTNFRD)

(c)           Phase 3 re-roofing (high pitch)    

Felling dates: Summer 1529

Principal rafters (1/2) 1528(25½C); Rafters 1522(18), 1499(h/s), 1471; Purlin 1527(15).  Site Master 1388-1528 WCCLOSE3 (t = 6.5 ALLFORCE; 6.4 FORD; 6.0 LONDON)

This building has been identified as the house of the hordarian (cellarer) of St Swithun’s Priory. It has a four-bay vaulted stone undercroft, with an open hall above, but the vault is greatly deformed by subsidence, and the northernmost bay was replaced by a timber floor supported on a large beam running between the end wall and an added masonry pier. This modification is now dated to winter 1392/3.

The thirteenth-century roof was low-pitched (22.5 degrees) with a parapet. The walls were subsequently raised by about 70cm, and a new five-bay roof built at the same pitch (with a parapet); it comprised flat tiebeams supported on wall posts and arch braces, each tie with mortices for two queen struts and a king strut. The tiebeams and one surviving rafter fragment (complete with roofing boards) have been dated. The final roof, dated to 1529, stands on the Phase 2 tiebeams, but the roof itself is reused; it probably originated on a monastic buildings demolished at or soon after the Dissolution. It has three tiers of tenoned purlins without wind braces, and a pitch of 49 degrees, though in its original location it was possibly lower-pitched. A second floor was inserted when the Phase 3 roof was constructed. Building recording, analysis, and notes by John Crook. (Miles and Worthington 2003, VA 34, list 141)

WINCHESTER,  The Pilgrims’ Hall, Winchester Cathedral (SU 4825 2912)                    

Felling dates: Spring 1300, Summer 1302, Spring 1307, Spring 1309, Winter 1310/11

Hammer post 1299 (19¼C); Rafter 1301 (8½C); Arcade plates 1306 (16, 13¼C); Arcade brace 1308 (16¼C); Crown brace 1310 (16C); Collar purlin 1305 (13). Site Master 1148-1310 PILGRIMS (t=11.8 HANTS97; 11.5 SOUTH; 11.4 WINCATH2)

The Pilgrims’ Hall is a six-bay medieval building consisting of two halls lying  end to end, plus a service bay. At the north end is the Pilgrims’ Hall (a 19th-century name) with three bays and two hammer beam trusses. The next two bays to the south probably comprised the guestmaster’s hall, with a single central base cruck truss. The Pilgrims’ hall has walls of stone; all the others had timber-framed walls, but the roof is of one build, and the different wall types seem to reflect the function of the various parts of the building. The roof is of supreme importance, as it includes not only a single ‘true aisled’ truss, but also three ‘aisle derivative’ forms: base crucks, hammer beams, and raised aisle construction. The building also includes original boarding, rebated into the major timbers of the truss separating the base cruck hall from the service wing. The latest felling date of 1310/11 fits well with the estimated felling date range produced by the Tree-Ring Dating Laboratory at the University of Nottingham in 1990-91, and corrects an implausibly early date of c.1290 obtained by Dr John Fletcher, both as a result of inadequate samples with little or no sapwood, and is entirely consistent with the art-historical evidence of the heads sculpted at the ends of the hammer beams. One shows a young man wearing a crown: it was probably intended as a portrait of Edward II.  Bibliography: John Crook, ‘The Pilgrims’ Hall, Winchester.  Hammerbeams, Base Crucks and Aisle-Derivative Roof Structures’. Archaeologia 119 (1991), 129-59.”  Notes supplied by Dr John Crook who together with the Hampshire Building Survey Group and the Pilgrims’ School, commissioned the dendrochronology. (Miles and Worthington 2001, VA 32, list 117)

WONSTON, St Olafs Pond Cottage (SU 417 395)

Felling dates: Winter 1534/5; Summer 1535; Winter 1535/6; Spring 1536

Principal posts (2/3) 1535 (28¼C); 1534 (23C); Principal rafter reused as joist 1535 (14¼C); Axial beam 1534 (32½C); Tiebeam 1534 (16C); Purlin 1519 (9). Site Master 1376-1535 STOLAFS (t=11.3 MASTERAL; 10.7 SOUTH; 9.7 OXON93)

St. Olafs Pond Cottage, Wonston, is a four-bay house dated to 1536.  It is interpreted as having a divided parlour bay (this is not unknown in Hampshire), a one-bay open hall, a floored service bay, and smoke bay ‘kitchen’ beyond this.  (A similar house is illustrated in S. Pearson 1994 Medieval Houses of Kent, 106).   The roof has clasped purlins and queen strut trusses with curved wind braces. (Miles and Worthington 1997, VA 28, list 85)

WOOTTON ST LAWRENCE, Ramsdell, Skyers Farm (SU 586 572)     

Felling dates: Winter 1579/80; Spring 1580

Posts 1563(7), 1579(17C, 19C); Rail 1579(27¼C); Tiebeam 1579(17¼C). Site Master 1426-1579 SKYERSFM (t= 9.6 OVERTON3; 9.3 STMRGRTS; 9.2 HANTS02)

The farm was acquired by Magdalen College, Oxford in the late fifteenth century and was leased to the Aycliffe family throughout the sixteenth. The barn is aisleless and of five bays with a central wagon entrance. The end trusses are gabled with clasped side purlins and queen struts. The interior trusses have raking queen posts that clasp the side purlins to diminished principal rafters. Wind braces and arch braces are slightly curved but the small tension braces within the small-panel framing of the exterior walls have a pronounced curve, making this an important transitional building. (Miles, Worthington, and Bridge 2004, VA 35, list 153)